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1916

Clair Wills.

in British and Irish Literature

P ublished online September 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Literary Studies (British and Irish). 10519 words.

The Easter Rising of 1916 is seen as the most significant single event in modern Irish history. On Monday, 24 April 1916, a group of Irish Volunteers, led by members of the secret...

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Aaron

John R. Spencer.

in Biblical Studies

P ublished online March 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Biblical Studies. 4676 words.

Aaron has an important role as priest in the Bible, particularly in the Hebrew Bible. When he is first introduced in Exodus 4:14, he is identified as the brother of Moses and as a Levite,...

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Abbasid Caliphate

Letizia Osti.

in Islamic Studies

P ublished online August 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Islam. 7442 words.

The Abbasid dynasty ruled the central and eastern Islamic lands, at least nominally, and headed the Sunni Muslim community for five centuries from its capital Baghdad. The Abbasid claim to...

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`Abd al-Qadir al Jilani (Gilani)

Jonathan Allen and Ahmet T. Karamustafa.

in Islamic Studies

P ublished online May 2014 .

Article. Subjects: Islam. 3953 words.

ʿAbd al-Qadir al-Jilani (b. 470/1077, d. 561/1166), also known as Gilani, is one of the more enigmatic figures in the history of Islam, as well as one of the most chronologically and...

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`Abdolkarim Soroush

Sayeh Meisami.

in Islamic Studies

P ublished online October 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Islam. 6554 words.

‘Abdolkarim Soroush is the penname for Hossein Haj Faraj Dabbᾱgh (1945–). He is one of the most controversial figures in the religious and political polemics of postrevolutionary Iran. This...

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Abel Gance

Paul Cuff.

in Cinema and Media Studies

P ublished online April 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Media Studies; Film; Radio; Television. 7562 words.

Although Abel Gance (1889–1981) is now recognized as a major figure of early cinema, he often struggled to find acceptance of his work in established canons of taste. As Jean Epstein wrote...

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Abhijñā/Ṛddhi (Extraordinary Knowledge and Powers)

David Fiordalis.

in Buddhism

P ublished online January 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Buddhism; Tibetan Buddhism; Zen Buddhism. 8540 words.

Abhijñā (Pali: abhiññā) is a Buddhist technical term that refers most specifically to a set of extraordinary powers and knowledge, including remembrance of past lives, telepathy,...

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Abhinavagupta

David Lawrence.

in Hinduism

P ublished online January 2011 .

Article. Subjects: Hinduism. 10051 words.

The polymathic Abhinavagupta (c. 950–1020 ce) was a pivotal figure in the histories of Hindu scholastic philosophy, tantra, and aesthetic theory. In long commentaries, he elaborated and...

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Abnormal Psychology

Robin Cautin.

in Psychology

P ublished online November 2011 .

Article. Subjects: Psychology; Cognitive Psychology; Developmental Psychology; Health Psychology; History and Systems in Psychology; Educational Psychology; Social Psychology. 3198 words.

Abnormal psychology is the subdiscipline of psychology concerned with aberrant behavior—its clinical description, etiology, developmental course, assessment, and treatment. Throughout...

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Abolition

Christopher Schmidt-Nowara.

in Latin American Studies

P ublished online October 2011 .

Article. Subjects: Regional and Area Studies; History of the Americas. 9071 words.

The abolition of slavery in Latin America took place between the Wars of Independence of the 1810s and 1820s and the 1880s when slavery was finally suppressed in Cuba (in 1886) and Brazil...

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