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Abstention Doctrine

in The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States

January 2005; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Courts and Procedure. 262 words.

one of a number of policies adopted by the Supreme Court that allow the federal judiciary to refrain from ruling

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Academic Freedom

in The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States

January 2005; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Courts and Procedure. 1237 words.

American professors had fought for academic freedom since the nineteenth century, but the term did not appear in a United

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Access To Trials

Edited by Kermit L. Hall.

in The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States

January 2005; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Courts and Procedure. 9 words.

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Accountability

Michael Coper.

in The Oxford Companion to the High Court of Australia

January 2001; p ublished online January 2007 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Courts and Procedure. 1392 words.

The High Court is the end of the road for litigants; there is no further appeal to another court. Moreover,

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Acquisition of property

Stephen Lloyd.

in The Oxford Companion to the High Court of Australia

January 2001; p ublished online January 2007 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Courts and Procedure. 1816 words.

One of the most fertile sources of constitutional litigation in the High Court has been section 51(xxxi) of the Constitution.

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Activism

Ronald Sackville.

in The Oxford Companion to the High Court of Australia

January 2001; p ublished online January 2007 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Courts and Procedure. 1216 words.

Judicial activism is an expression coined in the US in the 1940s, which has since become a political slogan. Like

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Actual Malice

in The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States

January 2005; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Courts and Procedure. 293 words.

a burden of proof imposed on public officials and public figures suing for defamation and falsity, requiring them to prove

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Adair v. United States

in The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States

January 2005; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Courts and Procedure. 288 words.

208 U.S. 161 (1908), argued 29–30 Oct. 1907, decided 27 Jan. 1908 by vote of 7

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Adair v. United States

Barbara C. Steidle.

in The Oxford Guide to United States Supreme Court Decisions

January 2009; p ublished online January 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Courts and Procedure. 278 words.

208 U.S. 161 (1908), argued 29–30 Oct. 1907, decided 27 Jan. 1908 by vote of 7 to

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Adams, John Quincy (11 July 1767)

in The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States

January 2005; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Courts and Procedure. 268 words.

The son of John and Abigail Adams, John Quincy Adams graduated from Harvard College in 1787, read law with

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