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Case Studies in Groundwater Contaminant Fate and Transport

Barbara Bekins.

in Environmental Science

P ublished online April 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Environment; Environmental Science, Engineering, and Technology; Environmental Science. 14647 words.

A case study of groundwater contamination is a detailed study of a single site contaminated with a chemical or mixture that is known to be a problem at many sites. The goal of case studies...

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Causes of Soil Salinization, Sodification, and Alkalinization

Elisabeth N. Bui.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science

P ublished online September 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Pollution and Threats to the Environment (Social Science); Earth Sciences and Geography; Agriculture and Farming. 10003 words.

Driving forces for natural soil salinity and alkalinity are climate, rock weathering, ion exchange, and mineral equilibria reactions that ultimately control the chemical composition of soil...

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Classification and Mitigation of Soil Salinization

Tibor Tóth.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science

P ublished online March 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Pollution and Threats to the Environment (Social Science); Agriculture and Farming. 10205 words.

Soil salinity has been causing problems for agriculturists for millennia, primarily in irrigated lands. The importance of salinity issues is increasing, since large areas are affected by...

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Climate Change and Conflict in Northern Africa

Janpeter Schilling and Lisa Krause.

in Environmental Science

P ublished online February 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Environment; Environmental Science, Engineering, and Technology; Environmental Science. 13831 words.

Climate change is one of the key challenges the world is facing in the 21st century. Concerns are increasingly raised that climate change might not only undermine the livelihoods of...

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Climate Change Impacts on Agriculture across Africa

Laura Pereira.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science

P ublished online March 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Pollution and Threats to the Environment (Social Science); Agriculture and Farming. 12224 words.

Confidence in the projected impacts of climate change on agricultural systems has increased substantially since the first Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports. In...

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Common Pool Resources

Tanya Heikkila and David P. Carter.

in Environmental Science

P ublished online November 2014 .

Article. Subjects: Environment; Environmental Science, Engineering, and Technology; Environmental Science. 8513 words.

Common pool resources (CPRs) are characterized as resources for which the exclusion of users is difficult (referred to as excludability), and the use of such a resource by one user...

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Critical Zone

Tim White and Sarah Sharkey.

in Environmental Science

P ublished online May 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Environment; Environmental Science, Engineering, and Technology; Environmental Science. 5688 words.

The critical zone (CZ), a term coined by the US National Research Council in 2001, encompasses the thin outer veneer of Earth’s surface, extending from the top of the vegetation canopy down...

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Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia

Philip M. Fearnside.

in Environmental Science

P ublished online February 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Environment; Environmental Science, Engineering, and Technology; Environmental Science. 13614 words.

Tropical deforestation represents one of the world’s great environmental problems, and Brazilian Amazonia has particular importance owing to the current rate of forest loss and the vast...

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Deltas

Edward J. Anthony.

in Environmental Science

P ublished online July 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Environment; Environmental Science, Engineering, and Technology; Environmental Science. 16093 words.

River deltas are subaqueous and subaerial coastal accumulations of river-derived sediments adjacent to, or close to, the source river. The word “delta,” however, is used in a more general...

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Desert Dust in the Atmosphere

Natalie M. Mahowald.

in Environmental Science

P ublished online August 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Environment; Environmental Science, Engineering, and Technology; Environmental Science. 6384 words.

Desert dust represents one of the largest sources of aerosols to the atmosphere in terms of mass (see also Atmospheric Composition and Structure). Desert dust particles are mineral soil...

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