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Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Edited by Craig Calhoun.

January 2002; p ublished online January 2002 .

Book. Subjects: Social Sciences. 1803 pages. 353649 words.

Oxford's unprecedented Dictionary of the Social Sciences is designed to break down the barriers between social science disciplines, as well as to make social scientific language...

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animatism

Overview page. Subjects: Social Sciences.

The belief that an impersonal supernatural force pervades everything. The term was introduced by R. R. Marrett in The Threshold of Religion (1900) as a criticism of Edward Burnett Tylor's...

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Kenneth Joseph Arrow

Overview page. Subjects: Social Sciences.

(1921– ).

Leading theorist of social choice, winner of a Nobel Prize in 1972. In Social Choice and Individual Values (1951), Arrow studied the determination of rational choice at...

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applied anthropology

Overview page. Subjects: Social Sciences.

The application of anthropological methods to social problems and the shaping of policy. Early versions of applied anthropology focused on colonial policy, including the training of...

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attitude

Overview page. Subjects: Social Sciences.

The way in which a person views and evaluates something or someone. Attitudes determine whether people like or dislike things – and therefore how they behave towards them.

Attitude...

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auctioneer, Walrasian

Overview page. Subjects: Social Sciences.

An analogy introduced by Leon Walras to explain the formation of equilibrium prices in a market. Equilibrium is reached by what Walras called a tatonnement process: the auctioneer announces...

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autonomous transactions

Overview page. Subjects: Social Sciences.

Those transactions recorded in a country's balance of payments that occur for reasons of profit or satisfaction of wants (both public and private). These are contrasted with accommodating...

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avunculate

Overview page. Subjects: Social Sciences.

A pattern of kinship in which the uncle—usually the mother's brother—has important responsibilities toward the sons of a family. This pattern is widespread in matrilineal societies,...

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atomistic competition

Overview page. Subjects: Social Sciences.

A market characterized by numerous individual actors on both sides, all without market power. The independent actions of these actors aggregate to the functioning of the market as a whole...

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alliance theory

Overview page. Subjects: Social Sciences.

Generally associated with the structuralist anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss, the theory argues that in kinship systems, inheritance and the continuation of the vertical line (descent)...

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