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Antonines

Overview page. Subjects: World History — Classical Studies.

A Roman imperial dynasty beginning with Titus Aurelius Antoninus (86–161ad). He succeeded Hadrian in 137 and was entitled ‘Pius’ (Latin, ‘the Devout’) by the Roman Senate. His reign was...

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augur

Overview page. Subjects: Classical Studies — World History.

In ancient Rome a religious official who observed natural signs, especially the behaviour of birds, interpreting these as an indication of divine approval or disapproval.

Recorded...

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Battle of Pharsalus

Overview page. Subjects: Classical Studies — World History.

(48 bc)

The battle in which Pompey was defeated by Julius Caesar. After Caesar crossed the Rubicon, Pompey retired to Greece to rally his forces. Caesar crushed Pompey's supporters...

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Caligula

Overview page. Subjects: Classical Studies — World History.

(12–41 ad)

Roman emperor (37–41). Brought up in a military camp, he gained the nickname Caligula (Latin for ‘little boot’) as an infant on account of the miniature military boots...

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Chaeronea

Overview page. Subjects: World History — Classical Studies.

The northernmost city of Boeotia, ancient Greece, the scene of two important battles. In 338 bc Philip II of Macedonia crushed the Thebans, Athenians, and their allies there, and so brought...

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Cincinnatus

Overview page. Subjects: World History — Classical Studies.

(c. 519–438 bc)

Roman republican hero famous for his devotion to the republic in times of crisis. Appointed dictator in 458 when a Roman army was trapped in battle by the Aequi...

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cursus honorum

Overview page. Subjects: World History — Classical Studies.

The name given to the ladder of (annual) offices that would-be Roman politicians had to climb. After a prescribed period of military service (though this requirement lapsed in the very late...

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Cyrus

Overview page. Subjects: Classical Studies — World History.

The Younger, second son of Darius II and Parysatis. In 408 bc, because of dissension between the satraps Pharnabazus and Tissaphernes he was given an overarching command in Asia Minor to...

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Hasdrubal

Overview page. Subjects: Classical Studies — World History.

(died 207 bc)

Carthaginian general. He was the son of Hamilcar and younger brother of Hannibal. At the start of the second Punic War in 218 he was left in command of Carthaginian...

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Helvetii

Overview page. Subjects: World History — Classical Studies.

Celts who migrated from southern Germany to south and west of the Rhine in the 2nd century bc. In 102 bc they joined the Cimbri and Teutones in invading Italy and were defeated by Emperor...

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