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Aezani

Stephen Mitchell.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Historical Geography; Middle Eastern History; Greek and Roman Archaeology. 324 words.

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Aretas

J. F. Healey.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Middle Eastern History; Ancient Roman History. 371 words.

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Attalus I, 269–197 BCE

R. M. Errington.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Ancient Greek History; Middle Eastern History. 426 words.

Attalus I (269–197 bce), ruler of *Pergamum (241–197), the first Pergamene to use the royal title. Cousin and adopted son of *Eumenes (1) I, Attalus expanded and consolidated his kingdom through...

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Attalus II, 220–138 BCE

R. M. Errington.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Ancient Greek History; Middle Eastern History. 223 words.

Attalus II (220–138 bce), king of *Pergamum (158–138), second son of *Attalus I, called ‘Philadelphus’ (‘Brother-loving’). Attalus served under his brother *Eumenes (2) II as loyal general against...

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Carthage, history

William Nassau Weech, Brian Herbert Warmington and R. J. A. Wilson.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Middle Eastern History; Ancient Roman History. 1607 words.

Carthage (Qrtḥdšt ( = ‘New Town’); Καρχήδων; Carthago), a *Phoenician colony and later a major Roman city on the coast of NE Tunisia.According to tradition (Timaeus, FGrH 566 fr. 60) Carthage was...

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Chaeremon (2) , of Alexandria (1), Greek author, 1st cent. ce

Christopher Pelling.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Literature; Middle Eastern History; Ancient Roman History. 94 words.

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Cleopatra VII, 69–30 BCE

Dorothy J. Thompson.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Middle Eastern History; Ancient Roman History. 570 words.

Cleopatra VII (69–30 bce), the final and best known of the Ptolemies, was daughter of *Ptolemy (1) XII (Auletes). On the latter's death in 51 she became queen, alone at first and subsequently with...

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crucifixion

George Ronald Watson and Andrew Lintott.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Early Christianity; Middle Eastern History; Greek and Roman Law; Greek and Roman Archaeology. 250 words.

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Ctesias

Lloyd Llewellyn-Jones.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Ancient Greek History; Middle Eastern History. 1875 words.

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Cybele

Francis Redding Walton and John Scheid.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Middle Eastern History; Religion in the Ancient World. 1032 words.

Cybele (Κυβέλη; Lydian form Κυβήβη, Hdt. 5. 102), the great mother-goddess of Anatolia, associated in myth, and later at least in cult, with her youthful lover *Attis. *Pessinus in Phrygia...

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