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Agriculture and Agricultural Technology

Michael Decker.

in The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies

October 2008; p ublished online November 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Middle Eastern Languages. 4067 words.

A misconception about Byzantium is that its agriculture was not technically advanced. In reality, Byzantine farmers were effective in sustaining the population for more than a thousand...

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Ancient Near Eastern City-States

Steven J. Garfinkle.

in The Oxford Handbook of the State in the Ancient Near East and Mediterranean

February 2013; p ublished online January 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Middle Eastern Languages; Greek and Roman Law; Classical History. 12171 words.

This chapter examines the history of the formation of city-states in the Fertile Crescent. It provides a working definition of city-state in both spatial and social terms, and describes the...

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Archaeology

James Crow.

in The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies

October 2008; p ublished online November 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Middle Eastern Languages. 4695 words.

The archaeology of the Byzantine Empire has not generated much interest, with Byzantine remains and monuments rarely taking centre stage in the major archaeological sites of the ancient...

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The Army

John F. Haldon.

in The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies

October 2008; p ublished online November 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Middle Eastern Languages. 3595 words.

The Byzantine armies of the fifth and sixth centuries were divided into two branches: stationary frontier units called limitanei and mobile forces known as comitatenses. The comitatenses we...

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Art and Iconoclasm

Robin Cormack.

in The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies

October 2008; p ublished online November 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Middle Eastern Languages. 2818 words.

Iconoclasm (from the word eikonoklastes, "imagebreaker") can be interpreted in two ways. It may refer to the process of the reassertion of imperial power in the state after a period of...

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Art and Liturgy

Nancy P. Ševčenko.

in The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies

October 2008; p ublished online November 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Middle Eastern Languages. 4068 words.

Liturgical art in Byzantium was known for its polyvalence as well as its ability to function and communicate on various levels and in various settings. Virtually all the arts of Byzantium...

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Art and Pilgrimage

Jaś Elsner.

in The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies

October 2008; p ublished online November 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Middle Eastern Languages. 4028 words.

In Byzantium, pilgrimage inspired various forms of visual art. These sacred arts span a wide range of image-making from tokens and souvenirs to masterpieces designed to adorn the...

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Art and Text

Henry Maguire.

in The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies

October 2008; p ublished online November 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Middle Eastern Languages. 3701 words.

Rhetoric occupied a central place in Byzantine literature. One of the genres of rhetoric is ekphrasis, defined in the ancient rhetorical handbooks as the description of "persons, deeds,...

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Art and the Periphery

Antony Eastmond.

in The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies

October 2008; p ublished online November 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Middle Eastern Languages. 3279 words.

Many modern historians and art historians disagree about art and the periphery in the Byzantine Empire. Byzantine writers such as Niketas Choniates argued that Constantinople was the centre...

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Book Production

John Lowden.

in The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies

October 2008; p ublished online November 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Middle Eastern Languages. 4045 words.

Book production in Byzantium was a long and complex process, requiring a wide range of materials and skills. Every Byzantine book was a "manuscript", that is, handwritten, and mostly in...

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