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Ancient Scepticism

Richard Bett.

in The Oxford Handbook of the History of Ethics

January 2013; p ublished online April 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; Moral Philosophy; Classical Philosophy. 9488 words.

This chapter, which analyses the ethical theories of Greek sceptic Sextus Empiricus, begins by considering other sceptical figures who preceded Sextus, both for their intrinsic interest and...

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Aristotle on Becoming Good: Habituation, Reflection, and Perception

Richard Kraut.

in The Oxford Handbook of Aristotle

August 2012; p ublished online November 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; Classical Philosophy; Moral Philosophy. 15489 words.

The Greek noun for which “virtue” and “excellence” are often used as translations—aretê (plural: aretai)—is cognate to the name of the god of war, Ares (called “Mars” in Latin) and,...

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Aristotle on Practical Reason

Christopher C. W. Taylor.

P ublished online August 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Philosophy; Moral Philosophy; Philosophy of Mind. 12214 words.

For Aristotle, phronēsis, the excellence of the practical intellect, is two-fold, consisting of a true conception of the end to be achieved by action and correct deliberation about the...

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Aristotle's Ethics

Paula Gottlieb.

in The Oxford Handbook of the History of Ethics

January 2013; p ublished online April 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; Moral Philosophy; Classical Philosophy. 14418 words.

This chapter examines the main issues in Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics. The discussions cover his views on happiness, virtues of character, virtues of thought, moral responsibility, moral...

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British Idealist Ethics

W.J. Mander.

in The Oxford Handbook of the History of Ethics

January 2013; p ublished online April 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; Moral Philosophy; History of Western Philosophy; Classical Philosophy. 9257 words.

A new moral philosophy emerged on the British philosophical scene in the late 1870s, one referred to as the idealist ethic of social self-realization, which rapidly became the dominant mode...

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Conceptions of Happiness in the <i>Nicomachean Ethics</i>

Terence H. Irwin.

in The Oxford Handbook of Aristotle

August 2012; p ublished online November 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; Classical Philosophy; Moral Philosophy. 16743 words.

Aristotle begins the Nicomachean Ethics by asking what the final good for human beings is. He identifies this final good with happiness, and in the rest of Book I, asks what happiness is....

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Cynicism and Stoicism

Christopher Gill.

in The Oxford Handbook of the History of Ethics

January 2013; p ublished online April 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; Moral Philosophy; Classical Philosophy. 10353 words.

This chapter discusses the ethical theories of Cynics and Stoics. Cynicism traces its origins to Diogenes of Sinope (c. 412/403–c. 324/321 BC), the most colourful and outrageous of all such...

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Epicurus: Freedom, Death, and Hedonism

Phillip Mitsis.

in The Oxford Handbook of the History of Ethics

January 2013; p ublished online April 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; Moral Philosophy; Classical Philosophy. 11296 words.

This chapter begins with an Epicurean account of freedom of choice, which illustrates some of the larger contours of Plato's ethical aims in the context of his materialism. It also serves...

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Homeric Ethics

Roger Crisp.

in The Oxford Handbook of the History of Ethics

January 2013; p ublished online April 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; Moral Philosophy; Classical Philosophy. 10505 words.

This chapter provides interpretations of Homeric poems. Homer reflects a view of the nature of human beings and their place in the world, and their reasons for living and acting in that...

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Platonic Ethics in Later Antiquity

Lloyd P. Gerson.

in The Oxford Handbook of the History of Ethics

January 2013; p ublished online April 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; Moral Philosophy; Classical Philosophy. 10448 words.

This chapter examines the ethical theories of Platonists in later Antiquity. The focus is on Plotinus, given that later Platonists follow him in his exposition of the Platonic position. The...

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