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Austin, Harriet N.

Jane B. Donegan.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Social and Cultural History; Labour and Demographic Economics; Ethical Issues and Debates; Gender and Politics; History of Gender and Sexuality. 986 words.

Austin, Harriet N. (1825–1891), hydropathic physician and health and dress reformer, was born in Connecticut but raised in Moravia, New York. Little is known about her parentage or early...

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Esdaile, James

Waltraud Ernst.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Military History; Warfare and Defence; Surgery. 1929 words.

Esdaile, James (1808–1859), East India Company surgeon and mesmerist, was born on 8 February 1808 in Montrose, Forfarshire, Scotland, the eldest son of the Revd James Esdaile and his wife,...

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Kellogg, John Harvey

Richard W. Schwarz.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Social and Cultural History; Labour and Demographic Economics; Surgery; Manufacturing; History of Manufacturing and Construction; Political Institutions; Public Administration. 1941 words.

Kellogg, John Harvey (26 February 1852–14 December 1943), physician, surgeon, and health reformer, was born in rural Livingston County, Michigan, the son of John Preston Kellogg and Anne...

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Martel, Linda

Gregory Cox.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Social and Cultural History; Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 793 words.

Martel, Linda (1956–1961), healer, was born on 21 August 1956 at Amherst Maternity Home, St Peter Port, Guernsey, the fifth of the six children of John Royston (Roy) Martel (1916–1979),...

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Merrick, Myra King

Anne Taylor Kirschmann.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Social and Cultural History; Labour and Demographic Economics; Medicine and Health; Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 1105 words.

Merrick, Myra King (15 August 1825–10 November 1899), physician and educator, was born in Hinckley, Leicestershire, England, the daughter of Richard King, a brickmaker, and Elizabeth...

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Nichols, Mary Gove

Marilyn Elizabeth Perry.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Social and Cultural History; Gender and Politics; History of Gender and Sexuality. 1454 words.

Nichols, Mary Gove (10 August 1810–30 May 1884), reformer and author, was born Mary Sargeant Neal in Goffstown, New Hampshire, the daughter of William A. Neal and Rebecca R. Neal. Although...

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Nichols, Thomas Low

Jean Silver-Isenstadt.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Social and Cultural History; Labour and Demographic Economics. 1211 words.

Nichols, Thomas Low (1815–1901), hydrotherapist, health educator, and writer, was born in Orford, New Hampshire. His parents, whose names are unknown, were probably farmers. After growing...

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Trall, Russell Thacher

Jane B. Donegan.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Social and Cultural History; Labour and Demographic Economics. 898 words.

Trall, Russell Thacher (05 August 1812–23 September 1877), hydropathic physician and health reformer, was born in Vernon, Connecticut. His parents’ names and occupations are unknown. Trall...

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