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Aitken, William

Robert G. Hall.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

P ublished online October 2007 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Social and Cultural History; Labour and Demographic Economics; Politics. 1042 words.

Aitken, William (1812?–1869), Chartist and factory reformer, was born in a barrack room near Dunbar, possibly on 2 June 1812, the youngest but one of nine children of Scottish parents,...

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Aldis, Charles James Berridge

Bill Luckin.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Social and Cultural History; Labour and Demographic Economics; Medicine and Health. 960 words.

Aldis, Charles James Berridge (1808–1872), physician and public health reformer, and the eldest son of Sir Charles Aldis (1776–1863), surgeon, was born in London on 16 January 1808. He was...

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Allen, Nathan

Richard J. Wolfe.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Social and Cultural History; Labour and Demographic Economics; Society and Culture; Medicine and Health. 1199 words.

Allen, Nathan (25 April 1813–01 January 1889), physician, social reformer, and public health advocate, was born in Princeton, Massachusetts, the son of Moses Allen and Mehitable Oliver,...

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Arnott, Neil

Bill Luckin.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Social and Cultural History; Labour and Demographic Economics; Medicine and Health. 1528 words.

Arnott, Neil (1788–1874), physician and public health reformer, the son of William Arnott, a manufacturer and farmer, and his wife, Ann Maclean, was born at Arbroath in Forfarshire,...

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Austin, Harriet N.

Jane B. Donegan.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Social and Cultural History; Labour and Demographic Economics; Ethical Issues and Debates; Gender and Politics; History of Gender and Sexuality. 986 words.

Austin, Harriet N. (1825–1891), hydropathic physician and health and dress reformer, was born in Connecticut but raised in Moravia, New York. Little is known about her parentage or early...

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Austin, Henry

Christopher Hamlin.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Social and Cultural History; Labour and Demographic Economics; Manufacturing; History of Manufacturing and Construction; Construction; Civil Engineering, Surveying, and Building. 727 words.

Austin, Henry (1811/12–1861), civil engineer and sanitarian, was the son of William Austin, medical practitioner, of Bloomsbury Square, London. Two sisters and at least one brother survived...

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Bader, Ernest

John G. Corina.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Industrial Chemistry; Social and Cultural History; Labour and Demographic Economics; Manufacturing; History of Manufacturing and Construction. 1287 words.

Bader, Ernest (1890–1982), chemical manufacturer and industrial reformer, was born in Regensdorf, Switzerland, on 24 November 1890, the youngest of thirteen children of a protestant farmer,...

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Baird, Henry Carey

William J. Barber.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Social and Cultural History; Labour and Demographic Economics. 831 words.

Baird, Henry Carey (10 September 1825–30 December 1912), publisher and economic pamphleteer, was born at the United States Arsenal, Bridesburg, Pennsylvania, the son of Captain Thomas J....

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Baker, Henry Brooks

William K. Beatty.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Social and Cultural History; Labour and Demographic Economics. 1206 words.

Baker, Henry Brooks (29 December 1837–04 April 1920), public health pioneer and author, was born in Brattleboro, Vermont, the son of Ezra Baker and Deborah Knowlton Bigelow. Ezra Baker died...

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Baker, Robert

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Political Institutions; Public Administration; Social and Cultural History; Labour and Demographic Economics; Manufacturing; History of Manufacturing and Construction; Surgery. 594 words.

Baker, Robert (1803–1880), surgeon and factory inspector, was born on 15 August 1803 in York, the second son of John Baker, druggist, of High Ousegate, York, and his wife, Hannah. His...

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