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Address

Overview page. Subjects: Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500) — Linguistics.

Forms of address are one of the linguistic means by which speakers mark their psycho-social orientation to their addressees. Forms such as pronouns, names, and terms of endearment encode...

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Baltic Languages

Overview page. Subjects: Linguistics — Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500).

The Baltic family belongs to the satem branch of I[ndo-]E[uropean], along with Sl[avic], Indo-Iranian, and Armenian. Lithuanian, its most important member, was included in the Comparative...

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Egyptian

Overview page. Subjects: Ancient History (Non-Classical, to 500 CE) — Linguistics.

An independent branch of the Afroasiatic family, Egyptian shows the closest relations to Semitic and Berber. With its more than four millennia of productive history—from 3000 bce to 1300...

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Germanic languages

Overview page. Subjects: Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500) — Linguistics.

The Germanic family belongs to the western (centum) branch of I[ndo-] E[uropean]. (For reference, see Kluge 1913, Prokosch 1939, Schwarz 1951, Maurer 1952, Krahe and Meid 1967, Coetsem and...

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Hungarian

Overview page. Subjects: History by Period — Linguistics.

Called Magyar by its speakers, Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language, the most widely spoken of the Uralic family. Hungarian has about eleven million speakers in Hungary, three million in...

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Polish

Overview page. Subjects: Early Modern History (1500 to 1700) — Linguistics.

Polish (język polski) is primarily the language of the Republic of Poland, which in 1998 had a population of more than thirty-eight million; there are several million more Polish speakers...

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Portuguese

Overview page. Subjects: History by Period — Linguistics.

A member of the Romance family of languages, Portuguese was originally the dialect of the county of Portugal in the Kingdom of Galicia; it achieved linguistic independence when Portugal...

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Scandinavian Languages

Overview page. Subjects: Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500) — Linguistics.

The family of Sc[andinavian] languages includes Da[nish], Faroese, Icelandic, No[rwegian], and Sw[edish]—the languages respectively of Denmark, the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Norway, and...

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Spanish

Overview page. Subjects: Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500) — Linguistics.

A prominent member of the Romance family, Spanish has an estimated 290 million speakers worldwide. It is the official language of Spain and its dependencies, of Equatorial Guinea, and of ...

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