in American National Biography Online
January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .
Reference Entry. Subjects: Ethnic Politics; Race and Politics; Protestantism and Protestant Churches; Slavery and Abolition of Slavery. 2479 words.
Crummell, Alexander (03 March 1819–10 September 1898), clergyman, activist, and Pan-Africanist, was born in New York City, the son of Charity Hicks, a freeborn woman of Long Island, New...