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Aa Gym

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

March 2009; p ublished online November 2007 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Society and Culture; Islam.

Abdullah Gymnastiar (b.1962) is an Indonesianpreacher popularly known as Aa (elder brother) Gym. Despite minimal orthodox

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ʿAbbāsid Caliphate

Hugh Kennedy and Ken Burnside.

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

March 2009; p ublished online November 2007 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Society and Culture; Islam. 2220 words.

The rise of the ʿAbbāsid caliphate was the first fissure in Islamic culture; it would eventually result in the Shīʿī

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Abd

Edited by John L. Esposito.

in The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

August 2004; p ublished online November 2007 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Islam; Society and Culture. 36 words.

Slave. Common element in Muslim names, followed by one of the divine names of God—for example, Abd al-Rahman, Abd al-Halim,

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Abd al-Aziz, Shah

Edited by John L. Esposito.

in The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

August 2004; p ublished online November 2007 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Islam; Society and Culture. 50 words.

Indian Islamic scholar and son of Shah Wali Allah (d. 1762), the foremost alim of eighteenth-century India. Prolific author

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Abd al-Jabbar, Qadi

Edited by John L. Esposito.

in The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

August 2004; p ublished online November 2007 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Islam; Society and Culture. 52 words.

Prominent Mutazili theologian. An adherent of the Shafii school of law, he was appointed chief justice (qadi) under the Buwayhids.

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Abd Allah

Edited by John L. Esposito.

in The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

August 2004; p ublished online November 2007 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Islam; Society and Culture. 45 words.

Slave of God. Muslim name, often transliterated as Abdullah. It is common for Muslim personal names to consist of the

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Abd Allah ibn Saba

Edited by John L. Esposito.

in The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

August 2004; p ublished online November 2007 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Islam; Society and Culture. 54 words.

Enigmatic alleged founder of Shii Islam (advocating rule by Muhammad's nephew Ali). His origins and political role are

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Abd Allah ibn Umar ibn al-Khattab

Edited by John L. Esposito.

in The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

August 2004; p ublished online November 2007 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Islam; Society and Culture. 44 words.

Companion of the Prophet Muhammad and son of the second caliph, Umar ibn al-Khattab. Prominent authority in hadith and

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Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan

Edited by John L. Esposito.

in The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

August 2004; p ublished online November 2007 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Islam; Society and Culture. 109 words.

Umayyad caliph responsible for standardizing imperial coinage and collecting a corpus of hadith to be interpreted by appointed faqihs (Muslim

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Abd al-Muttalib ibn Hashim

Edited by John L. Esposito.

in The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

August 2004; p ublished online November 2007 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Islam; Society and Culture. 58 words.

Muhammad's grandfather. Cared for Muhammad after the deaths of his parents. Died when Muhammad was eight. Credited by hadith

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