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Academic Freedom.

Overview page. Subjects: Law — United States History.

The American tradition of academic freedom drew inspiration from the German concept of Lehrfreiheit, the statutory rights of professors in state universities to teach and do research...

See overview in Oxford Index

American Bar Association

Overview page. Subjects: Law — United States History.

The American Bar Association (ABA) was founded in 1878 in Saratoga Springs, New York, as a voluntary, national organization of the legal profession. Its initial membership totaled 289...

See overview in Oxford Index

Ashe, Thomas Samuel

William S. Powell.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: US Politics; Civil War and Reconstruction US History; Law; Criminology and Criminal Justice. 958 words.

Ashe, Thomas Samuel (19 July 1812–04 February 1887), jurist and congressman, was born at “the Hawfields,” Orange County, North Carolina, the home of his maternal grandfather, where his...

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Auchmuty, Robert, Jr.

David E. Maas.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: US Politics; US Colonial and Revolutionary History; Colonialism and Imperialism; Law; Criminology and Criminal Justice. 1237 words.

Auchmuty, Robert, Jr. (1725–11 December 1788), lawyer and Loyalist, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, the son of Scottish-born Robert Auchmuty, a judge of admiralty in Massachusetts, and...

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Ayllón, Lucas Vázquez de

Paul E. Hoffman.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: US Politics; US Colonial and Revolutionary History; Colonialism and Imperialism; Law; Criminology and Criminal Justice. 1093 words.

Ayllón, Lucas Vázquez de (1480?–18 October 1526), Spanish judge and founder of the first Spanish colony in North America, was born at Toledo, Spain, the son of Juan Vázquez de Ayllón, a...

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Balance of powers

David J. Bodenhamer.

in The U.S. Constitution: A Very Short Introduction

August 2018; p ublished online April 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: History of Law; Legal and Constitutional History; US Colonial and Revolutionary History. 2470 words.

Two questions guided the framers when dividing power among the branches of government: What were the limits and purposes of national power? What were the roles and responsibilities of the...

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Bedford, Gunning, Jr.

Rodger C. Henderson.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: US Politics; US Colonial and Revolutionary History; Colonialism and Imperialism; Law; Criminology and Criminal Justice. 1740 words.

Bedford, Gunning, Jr. (1747–30 March 1812), revolutionary statesman, signer of the U.S. Constitution, and federal district judge, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of Gunning...

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Benjamin, Judah Philip

Michael B. Chesson.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: US Politics; Civil War and Reconstruction US History; Law; Criminology and Criminal Justice. 2188 words.

Benjamin, Judah Philip (06 August 1811–06 May 1884), Confederate cabinet member, U.S. senator, and lawyer, was born at Christiansted, St. Croix, West Indies, the son of Philip Benjamin, a...

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Benson, Egbert

Donald Roper.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: US Politics; US Colonial and Revolutionary History; Colonialism and Imperialism; Law; Criminology and Criminal Justice. 1298 words.

Benson, Egbert (21 June 1746–24 August 1833), jurist and founding father, was born in New York City, the son of Robert Benson and Catherine Van Borsum. After graduating from King’s College...

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Bollan, William

Ronald Lettieri.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literature; Literary Studies (Fiction, Novelists, and Prose Writers); US Politics; US Colonial and Revolutionary History; Colonialism and Imperialism; Law; Criminology and Criminal Justice. 1167 words.

Bollan, William (1710?–1782), colonial agent and lawyer, was born in England and emigrated from there to America while a teenager. He pursued a legal career by studying as an apprentice...

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