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General Deterrence

Robert Apel and Daniel S. Nagin.

in The Oxford Handbook of Crime and Criminal Justice

September 2011; p ublished online September 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Courts and Procedure; Penology and Punishment. 12464 words.

This article begins with a discussion of key concepts of deterrence. Section II turns to empirical research on general deterrence. It considers the deterrent effect of the penultimate and...

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Legitimacy and Lawful Policing

Sanja Kutnjak Ivković.

in The Oxford Handbook of Crime and Criminal Justice

September 2011; p ublished online September 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Policing; Penology and Punishment; Theories of Crime. 22725 words.

This article is organized as follows. Section I focuses on the concept of police legitimacy, exploring it from the police agency perspective (i.e., why people obey the authority), and...

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Sentencing Policies and Practices in California

Michael Vitiello.

P ublished online November 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Courts and Procedure; Penology and Punishment. 11906 words.

This chapter traces sentencing policies and practices in California, including the decision to abandon indeterminate sentencing and the enactment of a sentencing reform statute called...

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Sentencing Policies and Practices in Minnesota

Richard S. Frase.

P ublished online June 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Courts and Procedure; Penology and Punishment. 11110 words.

This essay evaluates the origins, purposes, operation, and evolution of Minnesota’s sentencing guidelines system, implemented in 1980. Topics examined include key guidelines provisions,...

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Sentencing Policies and Practices in Pennsylvania

Jeffery T. Ulmer and Julia A. Laskorunsky.

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Courts and Procedure; Penology and Punishment. 8436 words.

This article outlines the history and evolution of Pennsylvania’s sentencing policies and practices since the adoption of its sentencing guidelines in 1978. Pennsylvania’s sentencing...

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Sentencing Policies and Practices in Wisconsin

Michael M. O'Hear.

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Courts and Procedure; Penology and Punishment. 9908 words.

This essay provides an overview of sentencing policies and practices in the state of Wisconsin and considers their impact on the state’s imprisonment rate. Current policies and practices...

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Zero Tolerance and Policing

Jack R. Greene.

in The Oxford Handbook of Police and Policing

April 2014; p ublished online April 2014 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Policing; Penology and Punishment. 12362 words.

This essay examines the rise of zero-tolerance policies in policing and in other parts of the social world with the aim of considering how such policies have come about, what they intended,...

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