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athleticism

Overview page. Subjects: Sports and Exercise Medicine — Sport and Leisure.

Devotion to or emphasis on physical fitness. Athleticism and an enthusiasm for sporting activities was a component of so-called ‘muscular Christianity': a loosely knit movement at the end...

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badminton

Overview page. Subjects: Medicine and Health — Sport and Leisure.

Took its name from the Gloucestershire seat of the dukes of Beaufort, where it is believed to have evolved in the 1870s from the older game of shuttlecock. It was much played in the Indian...

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body composition

Overview page. Subjects: Sport and Leisure — Medicine and Health.

The relative amounts of different components in the body. Sports scientists often divide the body into two main components: fat-free mass (consisting of all the body tissue which is not...

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callisthenics

Overview page. Subjects: Sport and Leisure — Sports and Exercise Medicine.

Systematic, rhythmic, light exercises, such as abdominal curls and push-ups, that utilize the weight of the body as resistance. Callisthenics are designed to tone and strengthen muscles,...

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civilizing process

Overview page. Subjects: Sport and Leisure — Sports and Exercise Medicine.

The historical process by which people have acquired a greater capacity for controlling their emotions. Associated with the civilizing process has been a lower tolerance of anti-social...

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comeback

Overview page. Subjects: Sports and Exercise Medicine — Sport and Leisure.

In sport, the relaunch of a sports career for a once-retired athlete.

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comparative study

Overview page. Subjects: Sport and Leisure — Medicine and Health.

(kŏm-pa-ră-tiv)

a study in which a participant is randomly assigned to one of two or more different treatment groups for purposes of comparing the effects of the treatments.

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cultural diffusion

Overview page. Subjects: Sport and Leisure — Sports and Exercise Medicine.

A social process resulting in the transfer of beliefs, values, and social activities (e.g. games or sports) from one society to another.

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cycling

Overview page. Subjects: Medicine and Health — Sport and Leisure.

A primitive wheeled cycle was exhibited at Paris in 1791 but had to be pushed with the feet, as were the hobby‐horses of the 1810s. In the 1860s a front‐wheel‐drive machine was...

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drill

Overview page. Subjects: Sport and Leisure — Sports and Exercise Medicine.

1 A precise, well-defined motor skill practised repeatedly.

2 A pre-determined series of actions.

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