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Acute kidney injury

Greta L. Piper and Lewis J. Kaplan.

in Trauma Intensive Care

May 2013; p ublished online September 2013 .

Chapter. Subjects: Critical Care; Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery; Nephrology. 5426 words.

AKI is increasingly common and continues to be associated with significantmorbidity and mortality. Although the understanding of certain etiologies andmechanisms has improved, the general...

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Acute osteomyelitis

Peter Calder.

in Oxford Textbook of Trauma and Orthopaedics

August 2011; p ublished online April 2011 .

Chapter. Subjects: Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery; Infectious Diseases; Medical Microbiology and Virology. 966 words.

♦ Bacteraemia resulting in bone deposition of bacteria ♦ Local bony tenderness, fever, and malaise may not be present initially ♦ WCC may be normal, ESR and CRP normally raised ♦ Plain...

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Bones and joints

Robert C. Tasker, Robert J. McClure and Carlo L. Acerini.

in Oxford Handbook of Paediatrics

January 2013; p ublished online January 2013 .

Chapter. Subjects: Paediatrics; Rheumatology; Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery. 14179 words.

Clinical assessment - The limping child - The limping child: differential diagnosis - Infections: septic arthritis - Infections: osteomyelitis - Spinal disorders - ...

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Brachial plexus injuries

Grey Giddins.

in Oxford Textbook of Trauma and Orthopaedics

August 2011; p ublished online April 2011 .

Chapter. Subjects: Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery; Neurology. 4254 words.

♦ Serious injury, usually closed ♦ C5/C6 injuries commonest ♦ More proximal injuries have best results ♦ Early treatment leads to better results ♦ Direct repair if possible ♦ Arthrodesis...

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Cauda equina syndrome

Jeremy Fairbank.

in Oxford Textbook of Trauma and Orthopaedics

August 2011; p ublished online April 2011 .

Chapter. Subjects: Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery; Rheumatology. 973 words.

♦ Cauda equina syndrome is a devastating consequence of cauda equina compression ♦ The most common cause is a large disc herniation in the presence of a narrow vertebral canal ♦...

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Chronic long bone osteomyelitis

Peter Calder.

in Oxford Textbook of Trauma and Orthopaedics

August 2011; p ublished online April 2011 .

Chapter. Subjects: Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery; Rheumatology; Infectious Diseases. 2359 words.

Pathological features of chronic osteomyelitis

♦ Necrotic bone ♦ Compromised soft tissues with reduction in vascularity ♦ Ineffective host response ♦ Sequestrum formation ♦ New...

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Complex regional pain syndrome

Roger M. Atkins.

in Oxford Textbook of Trauma and Orthopaedics

August 2011; p ublished online April 2011 .

Chapter. Subjects: Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery; Pain Medicine. 2319 words.

♦ Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a disabling chronic pain condition of unknown aetiology ♦ Traditionally it was thought to be rare; however, prospective studies demonstrate it...

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Crystal arthropathies

Sandeep Bawa and Paul Wordsworth.

in Oxford Textbook of Trauma and Orthopaedics

August 2011; p ublished online April 2011 .

Chapter. Subjects: Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery; Rheumatology. 3249 words.

♦ Always exclude infection in acute hot joint ♦ Raised serum uric acid does not necessarily confirm a diagnosis of gout ♦ Aspiration and microscopy is essential for accurate diagnosis of...

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Degenerative arthritis of the wrist

Peter Burge.

in Oxford Textbook of Trauma and Orthopaedics

August 2011; p ublished online April 2011 .

Chapter. Subjects: Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery; Rheumatology. 2180 words.

♦ The multiple joint compartments of the wrist show very different susceptibility to degenerative arthritis ♦ Secondary, not primary, degenerative arthritis of the radiocarpal joint is...

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Degenerative disease of the thoracic spine

Jayme R. Hiratzka, Robert A. Hart and Henry H. Bohlman.

in Oxford Textbook of Trauma and Orthopaedics

August 2011; p ublished online April 2011 .

Chapter. Subjects: Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery; Rheumatology. 2003 words.

♦ Thoracic degenerative disease is an uncommon problem and is often misdiagnosed ♦ Posterolateral approaches such as transpedicular or lateral extracavitary reduce morbidity associated...

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