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Billings, Joseph

John H. Appleby.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Military History; Naval Forces and Warfare; European History; Maps and Map-making; Oceanography and Hydrology; World History. 1481 words.

Billings, Joseph (1758–1806), explorer and hydrographer in Russia, was born in 1758 at Turnham Green, Middlesex, according to ship musters; parish church registers confirm the birth of...

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Borough, Stephen

R. C. D. Baldwin.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: World History; Maps and Map-making; European History; Military History; Naval Forces and Warfare. 2667 words.

Borough, Stephen (1525–1584), explorer and naval administrator, was born on 25 September 1525 at Borough House, Northam Burrows, Northam, Devon, the elder son of Walter Borough (1494–1548)...

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Borough, William

R. C. D. Baldwin.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: World History; Maps and Map-making; History of the Americas; European History; Military History; Naval Forces and Warfare. 2473 words.

Borough, William (bap. 1536, d. 1598), explorer and naval administrator, was born at Borough House, Northam Burrows, Northam, Devon, to Walter Borough (1494–1548) and Mary (née Dough) and...

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Cabot, Sebastian

David Loades.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: World History; Maps and Map-making; Cartography; History of the Americas; Asian History; European History. 3533 words.

Cabot, Sebastian (c. 1481/2–1557), explorer and cartographer, was the son of the explorer and navigator John Cabot (c. 1451–1498) and his wife, Mattea.

Neither the place nor the...

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Carruthers, (Alexander) Douglas Mitchell

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Natural History; World History; Maps and Map-making; Asian History; European History. 824 words.

Carruthers, (Alexander) Douglas Mitchell (1882–1962), explorer and naturalist, was born in London on 4 October 1882, the eldest son of William Mitchell-Carruthers (1853–1931), who took...

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Chancellor, Richard

James McDermott.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: World History; Maps and Map-making; European History. 1276 words.

Chancellor, Richard (d. 1556), explorer, is of unknown origins; the scholar Clement Adams, who set down his Russian observations, claimed that he was brought up in the household of Sir...

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Doughty, Charles Montagu

Stephen E. Tabachnick.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (Poetry and Poets); World History; Maps and Map-making; European History; Literary Studies (Travel Literature); Travel and Holiday; African History. 3249 words.

Doughty, Charles Montagu (1843–1926), explorer, travel writer, and poet, was born on 19 August 1843 at Theberton Hall, Leiston, Suffolk, the younger of two sons of the Revd Charles Montagu...

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Elton, John

E. I. Carlyle.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Manufacturing; History of Manufacturing and Construction; World History; Travel and Holiday; European History; Maps and Map-making. 740 words.

Elton, John (d. 1751), merchant and adventurer, is of unknown origins. He arrived in Russia in 1732 to present to the Russian government a memorandum for finding a northern sea passage to...

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Freshfield, Douglas William

R. N. Rudmose Brown.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Education; Earth Sciences and Geography; World History; Maps and Map-making; Asian History; European History. 1220 words.

Freshfield, Douglas William (1845–1934), geographer and mountain explorer, was born at Hampstead, Middlesex, on 27 April 1845, the only son of Henry Ray Freshfield (1814–1895) [see under Fr...

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Fuchs, Sir Vivian Ernest

Peter Clarkson.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: World History; Maps and Map-making; Science and Mathematics; European History; African History. 1979 words.

Fuchs, Sir Vivian Ernest (1908–1999), explorer and scientist, was born on 11 February 1908 at Recluse Lodge, Freshwater, Isle of Wight, the only child of Ernst Fuchs (1882–1957) and Violet...

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