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Agricultural Transformations in Sugarcane and Labor in Brazil

Thomas D. Rogers.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Latin American History

P ublished online September 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Latin American History; Labour History; History of Science and Technology. 10178 words.

The Portuguese took sugarcane from their Atlantic island holdings to Brazil in the first decades of the 16th century, using their model of extensive agriculture and coerced labor to turn...

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American and German Geography ca. 1820–1919

Geoffrey Martin.

in American Geography and Geographers

February 2015; p ublished online August 2015 .

Chapter. Subjects: History of the Americas; History of Science and Technology. 19866 words.

The kindergarten, the elementary school, and the university, as developed in America, were largely the product of German influence. Well-established German universities attracted young...

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American Geography and Geographers

Geoffrey J. Martin.

February 2015; p ublished online August 2015 .

Book. Subjects: History of the Americas; History of Science and Technology. 1240 pages.

Commencing in the 1820’s, American scholars took learning in Germany. There they confronted forms of geography in the universities, and learned of the normal school tradition. Upon their...

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The Association of American Geographers and the American Society for Professional Geographers

Geoffrey Martin.

in American Geography and Geographers

February 2015; p ublished online August 2015 .

Chapter. Subjects: History of the Americas; History of Science and Technology. 9620 words.

The Association of American Geographers, founded in 1904 with forty-eight members, was the product of the fecund mind of William Morris Davis. Membership increased very slowly. Meanwhile, a...

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The Association of Communitarian Health Services (ASECSA) and the Role of Religion and Health in Central America

Susan Fitzpatrick-Behrens.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Latin American History

P ublished online August 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Latin American History; History of Religion; History of Science and Technology. 8945 words.

The Association of Communitarian Health Services (ASECSA) is a transnational, religiously influenced health program in Central America created during the Cold War. ASECSA was founded in...

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Back, Sir George (1796–1878), naval officer and explorer

A. H. Beesly.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Military History; Naval Forces and Warfare; World History; Maps and Map-making; History of the Americas. 1596 words.

Back, Sir George (1796–1878), naval officer and explorer, was born on 6 November 1796 at Stockport, Cheshire, the second son of John Back and his wife, Ann. He entered the navy as...

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Barlow, Roger (d. 1553)

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Manufacturing; History of Manufacturing and Construction; World History; Maps and Map-making; History of the Americas. 4 words.

See Barlow [Finch], William

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Bartram, John (1699–1777), botanist and explorer in America

Frank N. Egerton.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Maps and Map-making; History of the Americas; Botany. 1368 words.

Bartram, John (1699–1777), botanist and explorer in America, was born on 23 May 1699 on a farm at Marple, Pennsylvania, near Darby, the elder of two sons of William Bartram (d. 1711),...

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beaver

Overview page. Subjects: Zoology and Animal Sciences — History of the Americas.

The beaver is often taken as a type of industry, from its habit of gnawing through tree-trunks to make dams. Recorded from Old English (in form beofor) and of Germanic origin, the word...

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Best, George (c. 1555–1584), explorer

R. C. D. Baldwin.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: World History; Maps and Map-making; History of the Americas. 946 words.

Best, George (c. 1555–1584), explorer, was the son of Robert Best and Anne Bowman, married at Merstham in 1548. He learned much about geography from his father who worked as an interpreter...

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