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alginic acid

Overview page. Subjects: Chemistry — Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

A hydrophilic polysaccharide (≈240 kDa) occurring in brown algae (brown seaweeds), especially the Californian giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) and horsetail kelp (Laminaria digitata)....

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betaine

Overview page. Subjects: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics — Chemistry.

The N‐trimethyl derivative of an amino acid; the term originally denoted N‐trimethylglycine, now called glycine betaine. Glycine betaine acts as a methyl‐group donor in some reactions; see,...

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calcium phosphate

Overview page. Subjects: Chemistry — Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

A white insoluble powder, Ca3(PO4)2; r.d. 3.14. It is found naturally in the mineral apatite, Ca5(PO4)3(OH,F,Cl), and as rock phosphate. It is also the main constituent of animal bones....

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clofazimine

Overview page. Subjects: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics — Chemistry.

N,5‐bis(4‐chlorophenyl)‐3,5‐dihydro‐3‐[(1‐methylethyl)imino]‐2‐phenazinamine; an iminophenazine dye with anti‐inflammatory, tuberculostatic, and leprostatic activity. It is...

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cyanocobalamin

Overview page. Subjects: Chemistry — Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

The most usual form of vitamin B12, in which the sixth position on the cobalt atom in cobalamin is filled by a cyanide group (the cyanide group being an artefact of the isolation procedure).

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disulfiram

Overview page. Subjects: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics — Chemistry.

A drug that blocks the oxidation of alcohol at the acetaldehyde stage and causes extreme nausea if alcohol is consumed; used in aversion therapy for alcoholism. TN Antabuse.

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estramustine

Overview page. Subjects: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics — Chemistry.

or (esp. Brit.)

estradiol 3‐bis(2‐chloroethyl)carbamate; an ester formed between estradiol and the carbonic‐acid analogue of nitrogen mustard (mustine); it...

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estriol

Overview page. Subjects: Chemistry — Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

or (esp. Brit.)

16α‐estradiol; 1,3,5‐estratriene‐3,16α,17β‐triol; a relatively weak estrogen produced mainly during pregnancy. It is synthesized by the...

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gluconolactone

Overview page. Subjects: Chemistry — Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

the trivial name for the γ‐lactone (d‐glucono‐1,4‐lactone) or δ‐lactone (d‐glucono‐1,5‐lactone) of d‐gluconic acid.

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losartan

Overview page. Subjects: Chemistry — Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

An angiotensin II antagonist used to treat hypertension. TN Cozaar.

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