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Angiospermae

Overview page. Subjects: Plant Sciences and Forestry — Earth Sciences and Geography.

Formerly, one of the 2 divisions of the Spermatophyta (seed plants), the other being the Gymnospermae. The term is now used only informally. (See angiosperm.)

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Anthrosols

Overview page. Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography — Plant Sciences and Forestry.

Soils that have been strongly affected by human activities such as ploughing, irrigation, or the addition of manure. Anthrosols are a reference soil group in the FAO soil classification.

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Archaeocalamites radiatus

Overview page. Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography — Plant Sciences and Forestry.

First described by A. Brongniart in 1828, this species is one of the earliest recorded equisetaleans or ‘horse-tails’, a group of plants noted for the jointed nature of the stem. At each...

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Archaeopteris

Overview page. Subjects: Plant Sciences and Forestry — Earth Sciences and Geography.

Early progymnosperm found first in the Frasnian stage of the Devonian Period. It was identified by its fronds, and is the earliest known representative of the Archaeopteridales.

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Baragwanathia longifolia

Overview page. Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography — Plant Sciences and Forestry.

An early representative of the club mosses (Lycopsida) that is known from the Lower Devonian. During the Devonian and Carboniferous, this group reached the peak of its diversification.

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Bathonian

Overview page. Subjects: Plant Sciences and Forestry — Earth Sciences and Geography.

A Middle Jurassic stage, about 167.7–164.7 Ma ago, commonly represented by carbonate sediments in many areas of Europe. It is known to contain an abundant fauna of invertebrates.

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Bennettitales

Overview page. Subjects: Plant Sciences and Forestry — Earth Sciences and Geography.

Extinct gymnosperm order ranging from the Triassic into the Cretaceous. They resembled cycads, and possessed reproductive structures which must have looked more like flowers than cones.

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bioclimatology

Overview page. Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography — Plant Sciences and Forestry.

The study of climate, with particular reference to the environments of living organisms, especially to those of agricultural plants and animals, and humans, together with the disease...

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Bryophyta

Overview page. Subjects: Plant Sciences and Forestry — Earth Sciences and Geography.

The plant phylum containing mosses, liverworts, and hornworts. Bryophytes lack a vascular system. See Classification.

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Calamites cistiiformes

Overview page. Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography — Plant Sciences and Forestry.

(horse-tails; family Calamitaceae)

A species of jointed-stemmed plants that were an important component of Carboniferous swampland floras. Unlike their small modern counterparts...

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