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Albert Einstein’s Finite Universe

Helge Kragh.

in Masters of the Universe

November 2014; p ublished online March 2015 .

Chapter. Subjects: History of Science and Technology; Astronomy and Astrophysics. 8427 words.

The interview with Einstein took place in 1928 in his apartment in Berlin. Einstein explained how he came to his cosmological theory of 1917 in which he applied general relativity to the...

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Antecedents

Jennifer Coopersmith.

in The Lazy Universe

May 2017; p ublished online June 2017 .

Chapter. Subjects: Astronomy and Astrophysics; History of Science and Technology. 6750 words.

Early ideas about optimization principles were brought in by an eclectic group of extraordinary thinkers: the Ancients (Hero, and Princess Dido), Fermat with his Principle of Least Time,...

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Arthur Eddington’s Rationalistic Cosmology

Helge Kragh.

in Masters of the Universe

November 2014; p ublished online March 2015 .

Chapter. Subjects: History of Science and Technology; Astronomy and Astrophysics. 7676 words.

CCN met the famous astronomer Arthur Eddington in Cambridge, England, in 1938. Their conversation dealt in part with Eddington’s important role in the theory of the expanding universe and...

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Astronomy in antiquity

in The History of Astronomy

May 2003; p ublished online September 2013 .

Chapter. Subjects: History of Science and Technology; Astronomy and Astrophysics. 4606 words.

‘Astronomy in Antiquity’ traces the origins of astronomy, which emerged for different reasons in Egypt and Babylon. In Egypt the far-flung kingdom required a well-established calendar to...

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Astronomy in the age of Newton

in The History of Astronomy

May 2003; p ublished online September 2013 .

Chapter. Subjects: History of Science and Technology; Astronomy and Astrophysics. 6159 words.

The transformation in thinking about the how the planets relate to the Sun was followed by a whole change in understanding of the how the universe worked. Aristotle, the dominant figure in...

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Astronomy in the Middle Ages

in The History of Astronomy

May 2003; p ublished online September 2013 .

Chapter. Subjects: History of Science and Technology; Astronomy and Astrophysics. 5692 words.

‘Astronomy in the Middle Ages’ examines how the ideas of Ptolemy and antiquity were preserved and transmitted, initially by the scholars of Islam. They built a number of observatories and...

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Astronomy transformed

in The History of Astronomy

May 2003; p ublished online September 2013 .

Chapter. Subjects: History of Science and Technology; Astronomy and Astrophysics. 4872 words.

The revolution set in motion by Copernicus was followed by huge advances in observing the planets and the stars. ‘Astronomy Transformed’ highlights the key thinkers and observers in this...

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The background

in Galileo

February 2001; p ublished online September 2013 .

Chapter. Subjects: Christianity; History of Science and Technology; Astronomy and Astrophysics. 4545 words.

‘The background’ gives an explanation of the prevailing scientific doctrine in the time of Galileo. Aristotelian philosophy was the basis of University education from the thirteenth...

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Conclusions

Jennifer Coopersmith.

in Energy, the Subtle Concept

May 2015; p ublished online August 2015 .

Chapter. Subjects: Astronomy and Astrophysics; History of Science and Technology. 3309 words.

Energy is ‘that-which-is-conserved’ and ‘the work done by a force’. The first definition brings in the different mathematical forms for energy, but neither one-liner clinches it. The energy...

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Conflicts with astronomers and theologians

in Galileo

February 2001; p ublished online September 2013 .

Chapter. Subjects: Christianity; History of Science and Technology; Astronomy and Astrophysics. 7480 words.

‘Conflicts with astronomers and theologians’ documents Galileo's dealings with the Catholic Church and fellow astronomers. Galileo inadvertently offended Christopher Schelner, a Jesuit...

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