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History of Science and Technology x Physics x clear all

Albert Einstein’s Finite Universe

Helge Kragh.

in Masters of the Universe

November 2014; p ublished online March 2015 .

Chapter. Subjects: History of Science and Technology; Astronomy and Astrophysics. 8427 words.

The interview with Einstein took place in 1928 in his apartment in Berlin. Einstein explained how he came to his cosmological theory of 1917 in which he applied general relativity to the...

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All at Sea

Roy Livermore.

in The Tectonic Plates are Moving!

April 2018; p ublished online April 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Physics; History of Science and Technology. 14849 words.

According to first-generation plate tectonics, sea-floor spreading was nice and simple. Plates were pulled apart at mid-ocean ridges, and weak mantle rocks rose to fill the gap and began to...

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The Analogical Turn (1884–1887)

Olivier Darrigol.

in Atoms, Mechanics, and Probability

February 2018; p ublished online March 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics; History of Science and Technology. 22734 words.

This chapter recounts how Boltzmann reacted to Hermann Helmholtz’s analogy between thermodynamic systems and a special kind of mechanical system (the “monocyclic systems”) by grouping all...

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Antecedents

Jennifer Coopersmith.

in The Lazy Universe

May 2017; p ublished online June 2017 .

Chapter. Subjects: Astronomy and Astrophysics; History of Science and Technology. 6750 words.

Early ideas about optimization principles were brought in by an eclectic group of extraordinary thinkers: the Ancients (Hero, and Princess Dido), Fermat with his Principle of Least Time,...

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Any capable physicist 1939–1941

Kenneth D. McRae.

in Nuclear Dawn

March 2014; p ublished online May 2014 .

Chapter. Subjects: History of Science and Technology; Nuclear Physics. 20130 words.

Chapter 5 traces the early steps in nuclear weapons research in Britain, United States, Germany, USSR, and Japan, In Britain, the focus is on the work of the Maud Committee, of which Simon...

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Arthur Eddington’s Rationalistic Cosmology

Helge Kragh.

in Masters of the Universe

November 2014; p ublished online March 2015 .

Chapter. Subjects: History of Science and Technology; Astronomy and Astrophysics. 7676 words.

CCN met the famous astronomer Arthur Eddington in Cambridge, England, in 1938. Their conversation dealt in part with Eddington’s important role in the theory of the expanding universe and...

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Askham [Ascham], Anthony (c. 1517–1559), writer on astronomy and almanac maker

Bernard Capp.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Mysticism; History of Science and Technology; Astronomy and Astrophysics; Alternative Belief Systems. 763 words.

Askham [Ascham], Anthony (c. 1517–1559), writer on astronomy and almanac maker, was born at Kirby Wiske, near Northallerton, Yorkshire, the third son of John Ascham (d. 1544) of Kirby...

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Astronomy in antiquity

in The History of Astronomy

May 2003; p ublished online September 2013 .

Chapter. Subjects: History of Science and Technology; Astronomy and Astrophysics. 4606 words.

‘Astronomy in Antiquity’ traces the origins of astronomy, which emerged for different reasons in Egypt and Babylon. In Egypt the far-flung kingdom required a well-established calendar to...

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Astronomy in the age of Newton

in The History of Astronomy

May 2003; p ublished online September 2013 .

Chapter. Subjects: History of Science and Technology; Astronomy and Astrophysics. 6159 words.

The transformation in thinking about the how the planets relate to the Sun was followed by a whole change in understanding of the how the universe worked. Aristotle, the dominant figure in...

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Astronomy in the Middle Ages

in The History of Astronomy

May 2003; p ublished online September 2013 .

Chapter. Subjects: History of Science and Technology; Astronomy and Astrophysics. 5692 words.

‘Astronomy in the Middle Ages’ examines how the ideas of Ptolemy and antiquity were preserved and transmitted, initially by the scholars of Islam. They built a number of observatories and...

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