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Biological Sciences x Sports and Exercise Medicine x clear all

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appetite

Overview page. Subjects: Sports and Exercise Medicine — Zoology and Animal Sciences.

A complex phenomenon, not to be confused with hunger, that in humans is the comparatively pleasant, though at times compelling, anticipation of certain foods. In other animals, appetite is...

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axial skeleton

Overview page. Subjects: Biological Sciences — Sports and Exercise Medicine.

The main longitudinal section of the vertebrate skeleton, including the skull, the vertebral column, and the rib cage. Compare appendicular skeleton.

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axis

Overview page. Subjects: Biological Sciences — Sports and Exercise Medicine.

1 The second cervical vertebra. It has a vertical superior process called the odontoid process, around which the atlas rotates.

2 See axis of rotation.

null...

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Barr body

Overview page. Subjects: Sports and Exercise Medicine — Zoology and Animal Sciences.

The condensed single X chromosome seen in the nuclei of somatic cells of female mammals. See Chronology, 1949, Barr and Bertram; dosage compensation, drumstick, late replicating X...

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cardiac output

Overview page. Subjects: Sports and Exercise Medicine — Biological Sciences.

The volume of blood pumped per minute by each ventricle, which is also the total blood flow through the pulmonary circuit. At rest, normal human cardiac output is approximately 5 litres per...

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dendron

Overview page. Subjects: Sports and Exercise Medicine — Biological Sciences.

Any of the major cytoplasmic processes that arise from the cell body of a motor neuron. A dendron usually branches into dendrites.

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deterministic model

Overview page. Subjects: Sports and Exercise Medicine — Ecology and Conservation.

A mathematical representation of a system in which relationships are fixed (i.e. taking no account of probability), so that any given input invariably yields the same result. Compare...

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distress

Overview page. Subjects: Zoology and Animal Sciences — Sports and Exercise Medicine.

A state of motivation relating to stress that the animal is unable to cope with. An animal may be in distress as a result of physical environmental factors, such as excessive cold or heat,...

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expiration

Overview page. Subjects: Sports and Exercise Medicine — Biological Sciences.

The process by which gas is expelled from the lungs (see respiratory movement). In mammals, the volume of the thoracic cavity is reduced by contraction of the internal intercostal muscles...

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gaseous exchange

Overview page. Subjects: Biological Sciences — Sports and Exercise Medicine.

The transfer of gases between an organism and the external environment in either direction. It occurs by diffusion across a concentration gradient and includes the exchange of oxygen and...

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