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Agassiz, Alexander

Edward Lurie.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Manufacturing; History of Manufacturing and Construction; Marine and Estuarine Biology; Oceanography and Hydrology. 1763 words.

Agassiz, Alexander (17 December 1835–27 March 1910), marine biologist, oceanographer, and industrial entrepreneur, was born in Neuchâtel, Switzerland, the son of Louis Agassiz, a zoologist,...

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Barton, John

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Botany; Economics; Political Economy. 722 words.

Barton, John (1789–1852), political economist and botanist, was born on 11 June 1789 in Southwark, London, the son of John Barton (1755–1789) and his second wife, Elizabeth, née Horne...

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Blackstone, John

Anita McConnell.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Manufacturing; History of Manufacturing and Construction; Pharmacology; Botany. 582 words.

Blackstone, John (1712–1753), apothecary and botanist, was born at Harefield, Middlesex, the eldest of three sons of Edward Blackstone (d. 1730), ironmonger and citizen of London, and his...

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Buxton, Richard

Anne Secord.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Manufacturing; History of Manufacturing and Construction; Botany. 883 words.

Buxton, Richard (1786–1865), botanist and shoemaker, was born on 15 January 1786 at Sedgley Hall Farm, Prestwich, Lancashire, the second son of the seven children of John Buxton and his...

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Caley, George

Anne Secord.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Manufacturing; History of Manufacturing and Construction; Botany. 1309 words.

Caley, George (1770–1829), farrier and botanist, was born on 10 June 1770 in Craven, Yorkshire, the oldest son of William Caley, horse dealer, and Martha Norbury. His parents were married...

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Cist, Jacob

John Huss.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Manufacturing; History of Manufacturing and Construction; Natural History; Engineering and Technology. 1192 words.

Cist, Jacob (13 March 1782–30 December 1825), anthracite coal pioneer, naturalist, and inventor, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of Charles Cist, a journalist and publisher,...

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Clater, Francis

Sherwin A. Hall.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Manufacturing; History of Manufacturing and Construction; Veterinary Medicine; Medicine and Health. 648 words.

Clater, Francis (bap. 1754?, d. 1823), farrier and veterinary writer, may have been the son of John and Mary Claytor who was baptized at St Peter's, Nottingham, on 14 April 1754. He...

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Clover, Joseph

Gordon Goodwin.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Manufacturing; History of Manufacturing and Construction; Veterinary Medicine. 378 words.

Clover, Joseph (1725–1811), veterinary surgeon and farrier, son of a blacksmith, was born in Norwich on 12 August 1725. He benefited from some early schooling and learned his trade working...

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Crowther, James

Anne Secord.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Manufacturing; History of Manufacturing and Construction; Botany. 817 words.

Crowther, James (1768–1847), botanist and porter, was born on 24 June 1768 in a cellar near the Wheat Sheaf inn, Deansgate, Manchester, the youngest of the seven children of Richard...

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Cuninghame [Cunningham], James

Gordon Goodwin.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Manufacturing; History of Manufacturing and Construction; Natural History. 761 words.

Cuninghame [Cunningham], James (fl. 1698–1709), trader and naturalist, was probably born in Scotland. He trained as a surgeon, and in London became familiar with the botanists Samuel Doody,...

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