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Adaptive Immunity

Jessica A. L. Hutter-Saunders, Larisa Y. Poluektova, Subhash Dhawan and Howard E. Gendelman.

in The Neurology of AIDS

December 2011; p ublished online September 2012 .

Chapter. Subjects: Disorders of the Nervous System; Infectious Diseases. 15588 words.

Innate and adaptive immune responses against human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1) infection parallel those seen against misfolded, aggregated and nitrated proteins during...

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Addiction

R. Douglas Bruce.

in The Neurology of AIDS

December 2011; p ublished online September 2012 .

Chapter. Subjects: Disorders of the Nervous System; Infectious Diseases. 14126 words.

Substance use disorders can increase the risk of HIV infection directly, through the sharing of needles among injection drug users, and indirectly, through facilitation of high-risk sexual...

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Adjunctive Medicines

Harris A. Gelbard and Stuart A. Lipton.

in The Neurology of AIDS

December 2011; p ublished online September 2012 .

Chapter. Subjects: Disorders of the Nervous System; Infectious Diseases. 9875 words.

Antiretroviral drugs are the only therapy currently in general use for the treatment of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), but the treatment response to these agents may be...

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Aging

Virawudh Soontornniyomkij and Cristian L. Achim.

in The Neurology of AIDS

December 2011; p ublished online September 2012 .

Chapter. Subjects: Disorders of the Nervous System; Infectious Diseases. 13168 words.

Dramatically improved survival due to HAART, and increases in newly diagnosed HIV infection in older adults, have lead to a growing number of older HIV+ patients. In the United States, it...

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Animal Models and Bioimaging

Eva-Maria Ratai, Margaret R. Lentz and R. Gilberto González.

in The Neurology of AIDS

December 2011; p ublished online September 2012 .

Chapter. Subjects: Disorders of the Nervous System; Infectious Diseases. 10352 words.

Imaging has been used extensively to study the effect of HIV infection on the brain. However, because histological samples cannot typically be obtained and correlated with imaging results,...

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Antiretroviral Nanotherapies

Madhavan P. N. Nair and Zainulabedin M. Saiyed.

in The Neurology of AIDS

December 2011; p ublished online September 2012 .

Chapter. Subjects: Disorders of the Nervous System; Infectious Diseases. 4439 words.

Although highly active anti-retroviral therapy has significantly reduced the severity of HIV disease, complete eradication of virus from hard-to-access reservoirs in the HIV-infected...

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Astrocytes

Etty N. Benveniste, Lisa N. Akhtar and Brandi J. Baker.

in The Neurology of AIDS

December 2011; p ublished online September 2012 .

Chapter. Subjects: Disorders of the Nervous System; Infectious Diseases. 11017 words.

Astrocytes are the most abundant glial cell type in the CNS and represent a diverse population of cells. In the past, the direct role of astrocytes in HIV-1-associated neurocognitive...

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Bioimaging

Linda Chang, Ute Feger and Thomas M. Ernst.

in The Neurology of AIDS

December 2011; p ublished online September 2012 .

Chapter. Subjects: Disorders of the Nervous System; Infectious Diseases. 25729 words.

Many neuroimaging studies have evaluated changes in brain structure and function in patients with HIV-associated brain disorders. Most of these were conducted to assess the neuroanatomical...

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Blood-Brain Barrier During Neuroinflammation

Yuri Persidsky and Servio H. Ramirez.

in The Neurology of AIDS

December 2011; p ublished online September 2012 .

Chapter. Subjects: Disorders of the Nervous System; Infectious Diseases. 8942 words.

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) shields the brain from the free entry of many toxins and immune cells, thereby providing a specialized environment for neurons and glial cells. In addition,...

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Blood-Brain Barrier Structure and Function

William A. Banks.

in The Neurology of AIDS

December 2011; p ublished online September 2012 .

Chapter. Subjects: Disorders of the Nervous System; Infectious Diseases. 17665 words.

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) actually consists of several relatively distinct barriers, operating in parallel to one another in different anatomical regions. These barriers restrict and...

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