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Abdou Diouf

Overview page. Subjects: Contemporary History (Post 1945) — African Studies.

(b. 7 Mar. 1935).

President of Senegal 1981–2000 Born in Louga, he was educated at the University of Dakar, and graduated in law from the University of Paris. Upon his return to...

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Adolfo Suárez González

Overview page. Subjects: Politics — Contemporary History (Post 1945).

(b. 25 Sept. 1932).

Prime Minister of Spain 1976–81 Born in Cebreros (Avila), he received a doctorate degree in law from the University of Madrid, and rose quickly in the...

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The Adviser to Princes

in Machiavelli

October 2000; p ublished online September 2013 .

Chapter. Subjects: Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500); Political Theory. 10418 words.

‘The Adviser to Princes’ considers The Prince, written by Machiavelli in order to recommend himself to the new Medici rulers of Florence. The book is concerned with gaining and holding...

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Afrikaner

Overview page. Subjects: Contemporary History (Post 1945) — African Studies.

A term originally used to describe a person born in South Africa rather than Europe; in the twentieth century it was used to denote a White person whose first language was Afrikaans....

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Ahmed Ben Bella

Overview page. Subjects: Contemporary History (Post 1945) — Social Sciences.

(1916– )

Algerian statesman, Prime Minister (1962–63) and President (1963–65). In 1952 he founded the Front de Libération Nationale (FLN), which instigated the Algerian War of...

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airship

Overview page. Subjects: Warfare and Defence — Contemporary History (Post 1945).

The first airship was built in 1900 by Count Ferdinand Zeppelin (b. 1838, d. 1917). Following successful trials, he was commissioned to build 100 airships (Zeppelins) for the German...

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Al Gore

Overview page. Subjects: Politics — Contemporary History (Post 1945).

(1948– )

US Democratic politician, vice-president of the USA 1993–2001.

The son of a Democratic politician who became senator for Tennessee (1953–71), Al Gore grew up in...

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Alain Marie Juppé

Overview page. Subjects: Politics — Contemporary History (Post 1945).

(b. 15 Aug. 1945).

Prime Minister of France 1995–7 Born at Mont de Marsan, he graduated from the elite colleges École Normale Supérieure and the École Nationale d'Administration....

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Albert Reynolds

Overview page. Subjects: Politics — Contemporary History (Post 1945).

(b. 3 Nov. 1932).

Prime Minister (Taoiseach) of the Irish Republic 1992–4 Born in Rooskey, Co. Roscommon, he spent many years as a businessman. He was first elected to Dáil Éireann...

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Alcide De Gasperi

Overview page. Subjects: Politics — Contemporary History (Post 1945).

(b. 3 Apr. 1881, d. 19 Aug. 1954).

Italian Prime Minister 1945–53

Early career

Born in the Trentino (which was then part of Austria‐Hungary), he graduated from...

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