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All Things Trade and Currency, All Nations Great and Small, 1933–1936

Patricia Clavin.

in Securing the World Economy

February 2013; p ublished online May 2013 .

Chapter. Subjects: Modern History (1700 to 1945); Economic History. 18419 words.

The period between 1933 and 1936 was an important period of transition, and EFO was used as a means through which states sought to make sense of a world now characterized by tariff walls,...

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The Architecture of the New World Order, 1944–1945

Patricia Clavin.

in Securing the World Economy

February 2013; p ublished online May 2013 .

Chapter. Subjects: Modern History (1700 to 1945); Economic History. 19108 words.

If the League of Nations had failed, its history generated the impulse to build not just one new organization, but many. Thanks partly to the ideas and practices inculcated by EFO, economic...

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Berlin and the Creation of the Franco-German Commission

Conan Fischer.

in A Vision of Europe

February 2017; p ublished online February 2017 .

Chapter. Subjects: Modern History (1700 to 1945); Economic History. 14283 words.

The Berlin Conference of September 1931 secured a formal agreement to create a Franco-German customs union, envisaged wider cooperation, and established mechanisms to achieve this. This...

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Breakdown

Conan Fischer.

in A Vision of Europe

February 2017; p ublished online February 2017 .

Chapter. Subjects: Modern History (1700 to 1945); Economic History. 17151 words.

As the Berlin Accord unravelled and became a point of disagreement rather than Franco-German rapprochement, the old wounds reopened, particularly those surrounding reparations and...

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Conclusion

Patricia Clavin.

in Securing the World Economy

February 2013; p ublished online May 2013 .

Chapter. Subjects: Modern History (1700 to 1945); Economic History. 10340 words.

The founding of the United Nations Organization and its ‘sister’ organizations, the IMF, the Word Bank, ECOSOC and the UN FAO, as well as new institutions for regional co-operation marked...

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Conclusion

Conan Fischer.

in A Vision of Europe

February 2017; p ublished online February 2017 .

Chapter. Subjects: Modern History (1700 to 1945); Economic History. 1593 words.

The Versailles peace settlement initially failed to reconcile French and German interests. However from 1924 both countries sought to circumvent this impasse through a process of...

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Conferences and their (Dis)contents, 1933–1934

Patricia Clavin.

in Securing the World Economy

February 2013; p ublished online May 2013 .

Chapter. Subjects: Modern History (1700 to 1945); Economic History. 21336 words.

The World Economic Conference convened by the League 1933 lies at the heart of international efforts to combat the depression. It was called by the British and French governments, acting in...

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despotism

Overview page. Subjects: Modern History (1700 to 1945) — Politics.

Autocratic rule by one person. Thus in its original Greek sense a ‘despot’ was the lord or ruler of an unfree state. The Byzantine emperor was routinely referred to as a despot, the title...

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European Sexualities in the Age of Total War

Dagmar Herzog.

in The Oxford Handbook of European History, 1914-1945

May 2016; p ublished online September 2014 .

Article. Subjects: History; Modern History (1700 to 1945); European History; Gender and Sexuality. 8009 words.

This chapter explores transformations in European sexual mores and practices in the era of the two world wars. It pays particular attention to the contradictory dynamics of the interwar...

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From Boom to Bust, 1929–1932

Patricia Clavin.

in Securing the World Economy

February 2013; p ublished online May 2013 .

Chapter. Subjects: Modern History (1700 to 1945); Economic History. 19588 words.

In 1929, international negotiations revealed widespread tensions over the operations of the reconstructed gold standard. There were signs the fixed exchange rate system was exerting a...

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