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Alternatives to Incarceration

Faye S. Taxman and Alex Breno.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice

P ublished online April 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Penology and Punishment. 9875 words.

Alternatives to incarceration are more than options, they have evolved into sentences of their own accord. Originally, probation and prison were the two major sentences; however, the...

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The Death Penalty

Randall McGowen.

in The Oxford Handbook of the History of Crime and Criminal Justice

May 2016; p ublished online July 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Penology and Punishment. 10354 words.

Although the death penalty often appears a timeless question, the last three centuries have witnessed dramatic changes in the frequency and organization of capital punishment in Europe and...

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General Deterrence

Robert Apel and Daniel S. Nagin.

in The Oxford Handbook of Crime and Criminal Justice

September 2011; p ublished online September 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Courts and Procedure; Penology and Punishment. 12464 words.

This article begins with a discussion of key concepts of deterrence. Section II turns to empirical research on general deterrence. It considers the deterrent effect of the penultimate and...

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Legitimacy and Lawful Policing

Sanja Kutnjak Ivković.

in The Oxford Handbook of Crime and Criminal Justice

September 2011; p ublished online September 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Policing; Penology and Punishment; Theories of Crime. 22725 words.

This article is organized as follows. Section I focuses on the concept of police legitimacy, exploring it from the police agency perspective (i.e., why people obey the authority), and...

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The Math and Science of Decarceration

James Austin.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice

P ublished online April 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Penology and Punishment. 9630 words.

Despite a growing consensus that “mass incarceration” in the United States has reached unacceptable levels, there has been little movement in its decline. National imprisonment rates seem...

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Mercy and Parole in Anglo-American Criminal Justice Systems from the Eighteenth Century to the Twenty-First Century

Carolyn Strange.

in The Oxford Handbook of the History of Crime and Criminal Justice

May 2016; p ublished online July 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Penology and Punishment. 11483 words.

Mercy’s long association with the whims of emperors and monarchs altered with the emergence of republics and democracies in the modern era. Over the nineteenth century mercy became...

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Norbert Elias, the Civilizing Process, and Punishment

John Pratt.

P ublished online April 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Penology and Punishment. 11405 words.

The way a society punishes its offenders has become a yardstick by which it can be judged as civilized. In civilized societies, for example, punishment on the human body has become...

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Perceptual Deterrence Theory

Ray Paternoster and Ronet Bachman.

in The Oxford Handbook of Criminological Theory

November 2012; p ublished online December 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Theories of Crime; Penology and Punishment. 11399 words.

According to deterrence theory in criminology, we are affected by both the costs and rewards that are consequent to our behavior. In other words, we tend to behave based on the expectation...

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Punishment

Michael Tonry.

in The Oxford Handbook of Crime and Criminal Justice

September 2011; p ublished online September 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Penology and Punishment. 14336 words.

This article discusses important ways of thinking about punishment. Section I discusses the history and recent past of work by philosophers and legal theorists. Section II surveys major...

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Punishment, Justice, and Emotions

Henrique Carvalho and Anastasia Chamberlen.

P ublished online April 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Penology and Punishment. 11733 words.

This essay discusses the relation among emotions, punishment, and justice. It reviews theoretical scholarship on the role of punishment in society and sociological research on emotions,...

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