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aerarium

Graham Burton.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Greek and Roman Law; Greek and Roman Archaeology. 418 words.

Aerarium, derived from aes, denotes ‘treasury’. The main aerarium of Rome was the aerarium Saturni, so called from the temple below the Capitol, in which it was placed. Here were kept state...

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artisans and craftsmen

Antony Spawforth.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online July 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Greek and Roman Archaeology. 383 words.

In Greece the prejudices of the (largely landowning) citizen-élites against the activities of ‘mechanics’ (banausoi), often slaves, *freedmen, or *metics, subjected artisans to formal handicaps in...

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baking, Roman ,

Jared T. Benton.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online November 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; History of Science and Technology; Greek and Roman Archaeology. 3382 words.

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Carrara

T. W. Potter.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Historical Geography; Greek and Roman Archaeology. 156 words.

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congiarium

Michael Crawford.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Greek and Roman Archaeology. 81 words.

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dēmiourgoi

Frank William Walbank and P. J. Rhodes.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Greek and Roman Archaeology. 259 words.

Dēmiourgoi, ‘public workers’, are in *Homer such independent craftsmen as metalworkers, potters, and masons, and also seers, doctors, bards, and heralds. *Plato (1) and *Xenophon (1) use the word...

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Docimium

Stephen Mitchell.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Greek and Roman Archaeology. 176 words.

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gift, Greece

G. Herman.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Greek and Roman Archaeology. 638 words.

In the Homeric poems, gift-giving perhaps receives more attention than any other peaceful heroic activity. It has three outstanding features. First, gifts have an extremely wide range of...

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hippeis

John F. Lazenby and P. J. Rhodes.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Greek and Roman Archaeology. 984 words.

In a number of Greek states the aristocracy was known as the ‘hippeis’ (e.g. *Eretria and Boeotian *Orchomenus(1); and cf. the ‘hippobotai’, of *Chalcis and, below, the Spartan élite (§ 3) and...

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latifundia

M. Stephen Spurr.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Historical Geography; Greek and Roman Archaeology. 616 words.

Latifundia (large estates) ‘have ruined Italy and are now ruining the provinces’. *Pliny (1) the Elder (HN 18. 35) put latifundia at the centre of debate about the development of the Roman rural...

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