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Abbreviations and Symbols

Nikolaos Gonis.

in The Oxford Handbook of Papyrology

December 2011; p ublished online September 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Greek and Roman Papyrology; Historical Archaeology. 3100 words.

The first part of this article deals with abbreviations found in Greek documentary papyri and ostraca. The documents in which abbreviation is rife are predominantly those produced on a...

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Accounting in Proto-Cuneiform

Robert K. Englund.

in The Oxford Handbook of Cuneiform Culture

September 2011; p ublished online September 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Historical Archaeology. 5438 words.

This article examines the accounting methods in proto-cuneiform during the archaic period. It discusses the importance of archaic numerical and metrological systems as elements of social...

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Adapting to New Contexts: Cuneiform in Anatolia

Mark Weeden.

in The Oxford Handbook of Cuneiform Culture

September 2011; p ublished online September 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Historical Archaeology. 9667 words.

This article focuses on cuneiform and scribal education in Anatolia. It attempts to trace some of the developments in the corpus of knowledge and training when it let the confines of its...

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Aegypto Capta

Friederike Herklotz.

in The Oxford Handbook of Roman Egypt

June 2012; p ublished online November 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Archaeology; Archaeology of the Near East; Egyptian Archaeology; Historical Archaeology. 5757 words.

This article discusses the Ptolemaic legacy and Egyptian independence; the annexation of Egypt; and the first Roman prefects in Egypt. In contrast to earlier changes of ruler, the...

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Agriculture and Farming

Zeev Safrai.

in The Oxford Handbook of Jewish Daily Life in Roman Palestine

August 2010; p ublished online September 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Classical History; Historical Archaeology. 7866 words.

This article presents a survey of research in farming and agriculture. It discusses the extent the economy was open that involved export and import. It then demonstrates how the local...

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Agriculture as Civilization: Sages, Farmers, and Barbarians

F.A.M. Wiggermann.

in The Oxford Handbook of Cuneiform Culture

September 2011; p ublished online September 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Historical Archaeology. 11634 words.

This article examines the role of farmers and sages in the history of cuneiform writing in ancient Mesopotamia. It explains that when cuneiform writing was invented at the end of the fourth...

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Ancestor Cults

Timothy Insoll.

in The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of Ritual and Religion

October 2011; p ublished online September 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Archaeology; Historical Archaeology. 6761 words.

This article focuses on ancestor cults and archaeology. The term ‘ancestor worship’, and to a lesser extent ‘ancestor cults’ carry a lot of baggage linked with evolutionary approaches to...

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The Ancient Book

William A. Johnson.

in The Oxford Handbook of Papyrology

December 2011; p ublished online September 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Greek and Roman Papyrology; Historical Archaeology. 11734 words.

From the beginnings of Greek written literature until deep into the Roman era, a “book” was fashioned by taking a premanufactured papyrus roll, writing out the text, attaching additional...

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Ancient Greece

Julia Kindt.

in The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of Ritual and Religion

October 2011; p ublished online September 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Archaeology; Historical Archaeology. 6850 words.

This article focuses on the study of ancient Greek religion. It begins with a brief discussion of the need to integrate the archaeological evidence better into historically oriented...

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Ancient Written Sources for Engineering and Technology

Serafina Cuomo.

in The Oxford Handbook of Engineering and Technology in the Classical World

December 2009; p ublished online September 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Greek and Roman Archaeology; Historical Archaeology. 9928 words.

This article tries to illustrate an idea of the range of extant ancient textual sources for engineering and technology. It also presents a broad outline of how the production of texts...

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