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Acton, John Emerich Edward Dalberg, first Baron Acton

Josef L. Altholz.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Alternative Belief Systems; Education; History. 4652 words.

Acton, John Emerich Edward Dalberg, first Baron Acton (1834–1902), historian and moralist, was born at Naples on 10 January 1834, the only child of Sir Ferdinand Richard Edward Acton,...

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The Age of Enlightenment

Alan Charles Kors.

in The Oxford Handbook of Atheism

November 2013; p ublished online December 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Religion; Alternative Belief Systems; History of Religion. 8297 words.

This article discusses the meanings, origin, context, scope, and central intellectual claims of atheism in the Age of the European Enlightenment. It emphasizes debates about proofs of the...

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Aikenhead, Thomas

Michael Hunter.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Alternative Belief Systems; Law; Criminology and Criminal Justice. 766 words.

Aikenhead, Thomas (bap. 1676, d. 1697), freethinker and blasphemer, was baptized on 28 March 1676, the son of James Aikenhead (d. in or before 1683), apothecary and burgess of Edinburgh,...

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Alcott, A. Bronson

Frederick C. Dahlstrand.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Social and Cultural History; Society and Culture; Alternative Belief Systems; Education. 2037 words.

Alcott, A. Bronson (29 November 1799–04 March 1888), Transcendentalist and reformer, was born Amos Bronson Alcox in Wolcott, Connecticut, the son of Joseph Chatfield Alcox and Anna Bronson,...

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Allestree, Richard

Bernard Capp.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Mathematics; Mysticism; Alternative Belief Systems. 522 words.

Allestree, Richard (b. before 1582, d. c. 1643), almanac maker and mathematician, was a younger son of William Allestree (b. before 1520, d. 1581) and his wife, Ellen. The...

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Alternative Spiritualities, New Religions, and The Reenchantment of the West

Christopher Partridge.

in The Oxford Handbook of New Religious Movements

July 2008; p ublished online September 2009 .

Article. Subjects: Religion; Alternative Belief Systems. 13516 words.

This article asks if the West is witnessing a thoroughgoing erosion of belief in the supernatural. Is the loss of faith in otherworldly forces a linear, one-way, inevitable decline, or are...

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Analytic Philosophy

Charles Pigden.

in The Oxford Handbook of Atheism

November 2013; p ublished online October 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Religion; Alternative Belief Systems; Philosophy of Religion. 7068 words.

Most analytic philosophers are atheists, but is there a deep connection between analytic philosophy and atheism? The paper argues (a) that the founding fathers of analytic philosophy were...

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The ancient world

in Paganism

May 2011; p ublished online September 2013 .

Chapter. Subjects: Alternative Belief Systems. 5891 words.

According to ‘The ancient world’, burial evidence points to three main models of our earliest religious beliefs: the notion of the earth mother; veneration of the dead, and by extrapolation...

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Aquinas and Atheism

Brian Davies.

in The Oxford Handbook of Atheism

November 2013; p ublished online December 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Religion; Alternative Belief Systems; Christianity; Comparative Religion; Religious Studies; Philosophy of Religion. 9501 words.

This essay aims to explain what Aquinas does and does not mean when using the word ‘God’. It also tries to explain why Aquinas thinks it reasonable to conclude that God exists and how...

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Arguments for Atheism

Graham Oppy.

in The Oxford Handbook of Atheism

November 2013; p ublished online December 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Religion; Alternative Belief Systems; Religious Studies. 8698 words.

This essay distinguishes three kinds of arguments for atheism: direct; indirect; and comparative. The article begins with a quick survey of direct arguments, and argues that the prospects...

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