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A. J. Muste

Overview page. Subjects: Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution — Military History.

(1885–1967), minister, labor organizer, antiwar activist.

Born in the Netherlands, Muste studied at theological seminaries in the United States and became a minister in the Dutch...

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Aaron Burr

Overview page. Subjects: Arts and Humanities — Warfare and Defence.

(1756–1836)

US Democratic Republican statesman. After losing the presidential election to Jefferson in 1800, Burr was elected Vice-President. He was defeated in the contest for the...

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AB

Overview page. Subjects: Maritime History — Warfare and Defence.

The abbreviated title for the rating of able seaman, indicating someone able to perform all the duties of a seaman on board ship. In the days of sail it was someone who could hand, reef,...

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abaft

Overview page. Subjects: Warfare and Defence — Maritime History.

Towards the stern of a ship, relative to some other object or position. Abaft the beam is any bearing or direction between the beam of a ship and its stern. See also aft; but ‘abaft’ is...

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Abbé de Saint-Pierre

Overview page. Subjects: Literature — Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution.

Charles François Irénée Castel Abbé de Saint-Pierre (1658–1743) was born on 13 February 1658 at château Saint-Pierre-Eglise situated between Cherbourg and Barfleur in Normandy, France....

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Abd al-Qadir

Overview page. Subjects: Islam — African Studies.

(d. 1883)

Algerian independence leader, Sufi mystic, and poet. Born in Algeria to a notable Moroccan family. Became involved in the Algerian independence movement after the French...

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Abdou Diouf

Overview page. Subjects: Contemporary History (Post 1945) — African Studies.

(b. 7 Mar. 1935).

President of Senegal 1981–2000 Born in Louga, he was educated at the University of Dakar, and graduated in law from the University of Paris. Upon his return to...

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Abigail Adams

Overview page. Subjects: Literature — Politics.

(1744–1818),

wife of John Adams, from whom she had to be separated for long periods during the Revolution, occasioning her frequent, loving, lively, and outspoken letters. She also...

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Abitur

Overview page. Subjects: Literature — Education.

The German examination equivalent to the General Certificate of Education Advanced Level. It is often held up by educators in the United Kingdom as a model to be emulated as it offers the...

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above-the-line

Overview page. Subjects: Media Studies — Marketing.

A term which now has come to mean mass audience advertising and promotional campaigns—for example, to describe campaigns that are targeted at high volumes of consumers in a large number of...

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