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Abdullah Cevdet

Overview page. Subjects: Islam — Philosophy.

Abdullah Cevdet (1869– 1932),was a leading Ottoman/Turkish free-thinker, materialist, and Westernizer. He was born in the town of Arapgir in Maʿmuretʿül-Azîz Province of the Ottoman Empire...

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Abhinavagupta

Overview page. Subjects: Theatre — Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art — Religious Studies — Indian Music — Hinduism.

(c.975–1025)

Greatest of the Kashmiri Śaiva theologians. His works deal with the theoretical, yogic, and ritual

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Abu Bakr al-Razi

Overview page. Subjects: Philosophy — Religion.

(d. 925)

Distinguished physician and philosopher; mostly famous as object of rebuttal since he held that the prophets have no advantage over philosophers, and their apparent...

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Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Tufayl

Overview page. Subjects: Philosophy — Religion.

(d. 1185)

Spanish Arabic philosopher most famous for his Hayy Ibn Yaqzan (‘The Living Son of the Vigilant’) a charming narrative of the hero Hayy, who is abandoned as a boy on a...

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Abū Yazīd al-Bistāmī

Overview page. Subjects: Religion — Philosophy.

(d. 875 (ah 261).

A Persian Sūfī, who was given to a life of asceticism and solitude. His only desire in life was to attain a direct experience of divine ...

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accident

Overview page. Subjects: Christianity — Philosophy.

In Aristotelian metaphysics an accident is a property of a thing which is no part of the essence of the thing: something it could lose or have added without ceasing to be the same thing or...

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acosmism

Overview page. Subjects: Christianity — Philosophy.

Denial of the reality of the material world. The term was originally applied or misapplied to Spinoza, but in the nineteenth century was also used to characterize the other worldliness of...

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Alexander Henderson

Overview page. Subjects: Philosophy — Christianity.

(c.1583–1646),

Scottish Covenanting leader. He was mainly responsible for drafting the National Covenant of 1638, and during the Bishops' Wars of 1639–40 he was the recognized...

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al-Razi, Fakhr al-Din

Overview page. Subjects: Religion — Philosophy.

(1149–1209)

Celebrated Islamic theologian, controversialist, and polymath.

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al-shafi‘i, Muhammed ibn Idris

Overview page. Subjects: Religion — Philosophy.

(150–204 / 767–819)

Abu ‘Abdullah Muhammed b. Idris al-Qurashi was born in Gaza or Asqalan in 150 / 767 and died in Cairo in 204 / 819. He was the ...

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