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ABC transporter

Overview page. Subjects: Genetics and Genomics — Chemistry.

A family of proteins that span the plasma membranes of cells and function to transport specific molecules into or out of the cell. The name is an abbreviation of ATP-Binding Cassette. ABC...

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abortive transduction

Overview page. Subjects: Chemistry — Genetics and Genomics.

Failure of a transducing exogenote to become integrated into the host chromosome, but rather existing as a nonreplicating particle in only one cell of a clone. See transduction.

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acidic amino acid

Overview page. Subjects: Chemistry — Genetics and Genomics.

An amino acid (q.v.) having a net negative charge at neutral pH. Those universally found in proteins are aspartic acid and glutamic acid, which bear negatively charged side chains in the pH...

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acriflavin

Overview page. Subjects: Chemistry — Genetics and Genomics.

An acridine dye that produces reading frame shifts (q.v.).

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active center

Overview page. Subjects: Genetics and Genomics — Chemistry.

In the case of enzymes, a flexible portion of the protein that binds to the substrate and converts it into the reaction product. In the case of carrier and receptor proteins, the active...

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acute transfection

Overview page. Subjects: Genetics and Genomics — Chemistry.

Infection of cells with DNA for a short period of time.

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adaptor hypothesis

Overview page. Subjects: Chemistry — Genetics and Genomics.

The proposal that polynucleotide adaptor molecules exist that can recognize specific amino acids and also the regions of the RNA templates that specify the placement of amino acids in a...

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adenosine phosphate

Overview page. Subjects: Chemistry — Genetics and Genomics.

Any of three compounds in which the nucleoside adenosine is attached through its ribose group to one, two, or three phosphoric acid molecules, as illustrated below. AMP, ADP, and ATP are...

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alloantigen

Overview page. Subjects: Chemistry — Genetics and Genomics.

An antigen (q.v.) that elicits an immune response (q.v.) when introduced into a genetically different individual of the same species. Antibodies produced in response to alloantigens are...

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amber codon

Overview page. Subjects: Genetics and Genomics — Chemistry.

The mRNA triplet UAG that causes termination of protein translation, one of three “stop” codons. The terms amber and ochre (q.v.) originated from a private laboratory joke and have nothing...

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