Select Gram-negative Aerobic Bacteria

David R. McNamara and Franklin R. Cockerill

in Mayo Clinic Infectious Diseases Board Review

Published on behalf of © Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research

Published in print January 2012 | ISBN: 9780199827626
Published online June 2012 | e-ISBN: 9780199929641 | DOI:

Series: Mayo Clinic Scientific Press

Select Gram-negative Aerobic Bacteria

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Gram-negative bacteria may be rod-shaped (bacilli), spherical (cocci), oval, helical, or filamentous. Cytoplasmic membrane is surrounded by a cell wall consisting of a peptidoglycan layer and an outer cell membrane. Gram-negative bacteria are widely distributed in the natural environment. They are commensals with many animals and play a vital role in normal human physiology as intestinal commensals. Gram-negative bacteria are the cause of various human illnesses. The gram-negative bacterial cell wall contains various lipopolysaccharide endotoxins. Endotoxins trigger intense inflammation and the sepsis syndrome during infection. Specific species of gram-negative bacteria such as Neisseria meningitides, Moraxella catarrhalis, Acinetobacter, Vibrio, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Haemophilus influenza are reviewed.

Chapter.  4803 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Infectious Diseases

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