A large set of disparate genes (growth arrest specific genes) associated with cellular quiescence. Gas1 protein (345 aa) appears to be a component of the sonic hedgehog signalling system and is a potential locus for human craniofacial malformations. Gas2 (313 aa) colocalizes with microfilaments at the cell border and along the stress fibres in growth-arrested mouse fibroblasts. The Gas2-related gene encodes two alternatively spliced proteins of 36 kDa (GAR22α) and 73 kDa (GAR22β), both of which have actin and microtubule-binding domains. Gas3 (peripheral myelin protein 22, PMP22, 160 aa) makes up 2–5% of peripheral nervous system myelin: mutations and duplications in the gene are responsible for various peripheral neuropathies. The gas5 gene is a non-protein-coding gene, the products of which are multiple small nucleolar RNAs, and apparently plays an essential role in normal growth arrest in both T-cell lines and nontransformed lymphocytes. Gas6 (721 aa) is a secreted ligand for the AXL oncogene product, a receptor tyrosine kinase, and is a vitamin K-dependent protein structurally related to anticoagulant protein S, but without anticoagulant activity. Gas7 (476 aa) is found primarily in terminally differentiated brain cells, particularly in cerebellar Purkinje neurons. Gas11 (478 aa) is probably a tumour suppressor, by homology with the mouse protein, and may associate with the Golgi. Homologues have a role in regulating axonemal dynein. Other gas genes are known in nonhuman species but human homologues have not (yet) been described.
Subjects: Medicine and Health.