French Jesuit theologian. From 1929 he taught at Lyons. A peritus at the Second Vatican Council, he was made a cardinal in 1983. His vast literary output covers a range of subjects, including the Church, grace and the supernatural, the history of exegesis in the Middle Ages, Pico della Mirandola, and Joachim of Fiore. He helped to create the intellectual climate that made the Second Vatican Council possible, largely by opening up the vast spiritual resources of the Catholic tradition which had been cramped by post-Tridentine ‘baroque’ theology. He was one of the founders of ‘Sources Chrétiennes’, a series of patristic and medieval texts, with French translation, now involving scholars from all over the world.