Late-C19 and earlyC20 movement, manifest in the arts of those European countries or regions of Europe that once had been subjected to foreign artistic or political domination. Aspects of national or regional historical architecture, including vernacular sources, were emphasized and used in inventive and eclectic ways. National Romanticism found expression in countries as disparate as Catalonia (see modernisme), Finland, parts of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Norway, Sweden, Germany, and Belgium, but it is a term especially associated with Norway, Sweden, and Finland, where it came to mean the artistic avant-garde. Probably the best-known architectural examples are Östberg's impressive City Hall (1909–23) and Wahlman's Engelbrekt Church (1906–14), both in Stockholm, but there are many fine buildings which could be included.
Cornell (1965, 1992);Jane Turner (1996)