Pope from 1800. By the Concordat of 1801 Catholicism was restored in France, but the success of the arrangement was vitiated by the Organic Articles, against which the Pope protested in vain. In 1808 a French army entered Rome. Pius considered himself a prisoner and refused to negotiate, and in 1809 the States of the Church were incorporated into the French Empire. Under pressure Pius, who had been taken under arrest to Fontainebleau, made extensive concessions to Napoleon in 1813, but he revoked them two months later. After Napoleon's fall he returned to Rome in 1814 and in the same year he re-established the Jesuits. The Congress of Vienna (1815) restored the States of the Church, and new concordats were concluded with various countries in the following years.