Suborder of the Khalwati tariqah, founded in the Kabyle region of Algeria in the eighteenth century by Abu Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Gishtuli al-Jurjuri. Al-Jurjuri was initially the focal point of a popular saint cult. Established in Algeria and Tunisia, the order came to be associated with the province and city of Constantine, a major center of religious learning and scholarship in Algeria. It was the most prominent Sufi order in Algeria by the twentieth century. It used the widespread suffering caused by the 1805 famine in Algeria to guide the population toward sociomoral reconstruction and to quell popular rebellions in the region. Used networks of zawiyahs (Sufi hospices) in Algeria and Tunisia to resist the French occupation in the nineteenth century. Responsible for preparing the way for a major popular rebellion against French rule in the 1870s—the only major rebellion in North Africa after the defeat of Abd al-Qadir, although it too failed. The local administrators and leaders of the Rahmani tariqah in eastern Algeria joined forces to oppose French rule. After French occupation, several zawiyahs served as centers for revolts either supported or led by Sufi notables. The Hejaz branch was founded by Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Masud ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Fasi in the nineteenth century.