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Abū Ḥanīfa

(d. 767)

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Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn ʿAli Shirazi

Overview page. Subjects: History of Law.

(a.h. 393/1003 c.e.–a.h. 476/1083 c.e.).

A leading scholar of the Iraqi branch of the Shafiʿi school of law, al-Shirazi was born in Firuzabad in what is today southern Iran. He ...

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Abu Ja‘far al-Ahwal, Muhammad b. al-Nu‘man

Overview page. Subjects: Philosophy.

(d. after 183 / 799)

Abu Ja‘far Muhammad (b. ‘Ali) b. al-Nu‘man al-Bajali al-Kufi al-Sayrafi, Imami theologian, was probably born in the first quarter of the second century /...

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Duty (Farḍ)

Overview page. Subjects: History of Law.

Farḍ (plural furūḍ; also farīd;̣a, plural farāʾid;̣) in the sense of a religious duty is regarded by the majority of Muslim jurists as synonymous with wājib (plural wājibāt), an obligatory...

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Ḥanafites

Overview page. Subjects: Religion.

The followers of a religious school named after the jurist Abū Ḥanīfa, which grew out of the old Kufan and Basran law schools. Two of Abū Ḥanīfa's pupils, Abū Yūsuf ...

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Maturidi, Abu Mansur

Overview page. Subjects: Philosophy.

(c.247–333 / c.861–944)

Abu Mansur Muhammad b. Muhammad b. Mahmud was born at Maturid, a locality in Samarkand, Transoxiana. The exact date of his birth is unknown, but it seems ...

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Muhammad ibn al-Hasan Shaybani

Overview page. Subjects: Islam.

(d. 804)

Jurist and student of Abu Hanifah and Malik ibn Anas. Trained in jurisprudence of both the Iraqi and Medina schools. Insisted on the decisive role of hadith in Islamic...

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Muhammad ibn Idris al- Shafiʿi

Overview page. Subjects: Islam.

(d. 819/20)

Jurist, theologian, and founder of the Shafii school of Islamic law. Born in Gaza. Died in Egypt. Educated in Quran, hadith, and fiqh in Mecca, Medina, and Iraq....

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Schools of Law, Muslim

Overview page. Subjects: Religion.

(Arab., madhab, pl., madhāhib, ‘direction’).

Muslim life is founded on Qurʾān, which itself was first expressed in the lives and words of the Prophet Muḥammad and his Companions....

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Usurpation

Overview page. Subjects: Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500).

A common phenomenon of late Roman and Byz. political life, was neither terminologically nor legally defined in Byz. The most usual term for usurpation of power by an illegal claimant ...

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