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aristocracy

Overview page. Subjects: British History.

A vague term, derived from the Greek aristokratia, meaning the rule of the best. It is broader than peerage or even nobility. In common parlance it was usually taken to mean the upper...

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banate

Overview page. Subjects: Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500) — Military History.

The term banate or banat designated a frontier province governed by a ban, a Slavic word meaning ‘lord’ or ‘governor’. Thus banat maybe translated loosely as ‘province’. The term designated...

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baronial reform movement

Overview page. Subjects: Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500).

Named for the 1258–65 attempt by English barons, led by Simon de Montfort, to reassert their claims under Magna Carta against King Henry III. In 1258 the barons passed autonomous ...

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Barons' war

Overview page. Subjects: World History.

(1215–17; 1264–67)

Two civil wars fought in England between the King and the barons. The first began in June 1215 at Runnymede, King John, faced by the concerted opposition of the...

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barony

Overview page. Subjects: European History.

A territorial division of a county composed of a number of townlands. There are about 270 baronies in Ireland. The origins of both the term and the divisions are obscure ...

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battle of Lincoln

Overview page. Subjects: Military History.

1141.

Stephen, besieging Lincoln castle, held by supporters of Matilda, the rival claimant to the throne, was himself attacked by a relief force under Robert, earl of Gloucester,...

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Bohemian School

Overview page. Subjects: History by Period — Art.

A term used to describe art produced in Bohemia in the second half of the 14th century, in particular during the reign of Charles IV, King of Bohemia from 1346 and Holy Roman Emperor from...

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burgh

Overview page. Subjects: British History.

A variant spelling of boroughs, is the Scottish term for privileged towns. David I is traditionally credited with the first foundations of royal burghs; after 1450, burghs founded by...

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castellany

Overview page. Subjects: Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500).

The basic comital territorial structure of Flanders from 993/4 on. The original military function broadened later into economic and judicial administration. Its court handled civil and...

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castle

Overview page. Subjects: History.

A fortified building for the defence of a town or district, doubling as the private residence of a baron in the Middle Ages. Although also called ‘castles’, Celtic hill-forts, Roman camps,...

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