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al Ẓāhiriy(y)a

Overview page. Subjects: Religion.

Those who derive law governing Muslim life from the direct text (z̳āhir) of the Qurʾān and Sunna. Their view rejected hermeneutical methods of relating Qurʾān and Sunna to life—not only ...


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Overview page. Subjects: Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500) — Religion.

Critical interpretation or explanation of a text, traditionally associated with religious scriptures, but now used with reference to close readings and analyses of any text.

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Schools of Law, Muslim

Overview page. Subjects: Religion.

(Arab., madhab, pl., madhāhib, ‘direction’).

Muslim life is founded on Qurʾān, which itself was first expressed in the lives and words of the Prophet Muḥammad and his Companions....

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Umar ibn al-Khattab

Overview page. Subjects: Religion.

(c. 581–644 ad)

Second caliph of Islam (634–44). He presided over the first major wave of Arab conquests, which were the work of great captains such as Khalid ibn al-Walid. Hostile...

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Uthman ibn Affan

Overview page. Subjects: Religion.

(d. 656)

Companion of the Prophet Muhammad, third caliph in the succession of early leaders. From the powerful Umayyad clan. Despite his family's opposition to Muhammad, Uthman was...

See overview in Oxford Index