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Charles Darwin

Overview page. Subjects: Arts and Humanities — Biological Sciences.


British naturalist, who studied medicine in Edinburgh followed by theology at Cambridge University, intending a career in the Church. However, his interest in natural...

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Overview page. Subjects: Philosophy.

A counterfactual is a conditional whose antecedent is false (typically, in philosophical practice, known to be false). The term is usually reserved for those (non-truth-functional)...

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‘emergence’ and ‘reduction’ in explanations

Overview page. Subjects: Psychology.

A classical question of philosophy is the one/many problem: is everything in the universe ultimately one thing—or are there, as it certainly appears, many things? In another and more...

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Overview page. Subjects: Philosophy.

Fact is stranger than fiction an alliterative version of truth is stranger than fiction; saying recorded from the mid 19th century.

a fact of life something that must be accepted...

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Overview page.

A principle on which the advance of science is based, that relies on the process of finding evidence that a scientific finding, belief, or theory is false. It is elucidated in the writings...

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Gaston Bachelard

Overview page. Subjects: Philosophy — Literature.


French philosopher of science, largely self-taught, who from 1940 to 1955 was the professor of history and philosophy of science at the Sorbonne in Paris. Bachelard...

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Overview page. Subjects: Biological Sciences.

A statement of the expected relationship between things being studied, which is intended to explain certain facts or observations. An idea to be tested.

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hypothetico-deductive method

Overview page. Subjects: Philosophy.

The method particularly associated with a philosophy of science that stresses the virtues of falsification. Most simply, a hypothesis is proposed, and consequences are deduced, which are...

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Overview page. Subjects: Psychology.

1 A form of reasoning, also called empirical induction, in which a general law or principle is inferred from particular instances that have been observed. Many people believe...

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John H. Goldthorpe

Overview page. Subjects: Sociology.

(1935– )

British sociologist, a class analyst with a particular interest in social mobility. Drawing on earlier work by David Lockwood with whom he collaborated on The Affluent...

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