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apochromatic

Overview page. Subjects: Astronomy and Astrophysics.

Describing a lens or optical system with very little chromatic aberration. In an apochromatic lens (also known as an apochromat) the chromatic aberration is completely cancelled out at...

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barite

Overview page. Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.

A mineral, BaSO4, which may form a solid solution series with celestite (SrSO4); sp. gr. 4.3–4.6; hardness 3.0–3.5; orthorhombic; colourless to white, often tinged yellow, brown, blue,...

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calcium fluoride

Overview page. Subjects: Chemistry.

A white crystalline solid, CaF2; r.d. 3.2; m.p. 1360°C; b.p. 2500°C. It occurs naturally as the mineral fluorite (or fluorspar) and is the main source of fluorine. See also fluorite...

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chinastone

Overview page. Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.

A light-coloured, hydrothermally altered, igneous rock composed of quartz, strongly kaolinized orthoclase (see alkali feldspar), fresh euhedral albite (see plagioclase feldspar), and minor...

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cryolite

Overview page. Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.

Mineral, Na3AlF6; sp. gr. 3.0; hardness 2.5; monoclinic; colourless to white, sometimes brown to reddish; white streak; vitreous to greasy lustre; crystals rare, but cubic-like and...

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fluorine

Overview page. Subjects: Chemistry — Environmental Science.

A non‐metallic element, the lightest of the halogens, usually in the form of a yellow, irritating, flammable gas which is one of the 100 most toxic substances known, and is persistent in...

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galena

Overview page. Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography — Chemistry.

A mineral form of lead(II) sulphide, PbS, crystallizing in the cubic system; the chief ore of lead. It usually occurs as grey metallic cubes, frequently in association with silver, arsenic,...

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gangue

Overview page. Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.

That portion of an ore deposit which is of no commercial value but which cannot be avoided during mining; it is removed during processing as waste. Common gangue minerals are quartz,...

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halide

Overview page. Subjects: Chemistry — Earth Sciences and Geography.

A compound of a halogen with another element or group. The halides of typical metals are ionic (e.g. sodium fluoride, Na+F). Metals can also form halides in which the bonding is largely...

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hemimorphite

Overview page. Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.

A silicate mineral Zn4[Si2O7](OH)2.H2O which accompanies zinc, iron, and lead sulphides and is associated with smithsonite ZnCO3, a principal ore of zinc; sp. gr. 3.4–3.5; hardness 4–5;...

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