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founders, city

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Alcidas

Overview page. Subjects: Classical Studies.

Spartan commander in the early part of the Peloponnesian War, failed to help Mytilene in its revolt from Athens 428–7 and treated prisoners brutally (Thucydides 3. 17, 29–33) so creating ...

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apoikia

Overview page. Subjects: Classical Studies.

‘a settlement far from home, a colony’, and hence a Greek community regarded as distinct from the kind of trading‐post conventionally known as an emporion. In effect, an apoikia may be...

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Cineas

Overview page. Subjects: Classical Studies.

(?) Thessalian founder of Ai Khanoum (in modern Afghanistan) to whom, as archēgetēs, hero-cult was paid, on the evidence of an interesting verse inscription put up at the instance of...

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Corfu

Overview page. Subjects: Classical Studies — Architecture.

Northernmost of the western Greek islands, located in the Ionian Sea just off the western coast of Epirus. Verdant and remote, Corcyra was identified with Homer's Scheria. During the 8th...

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Greek colonization

Overview page. Subjects: Classical Studies.

‘Colonization’, in the language of a former imperial power, is a somewhat misleading term for the process of major Greek expansion that took place between c.734 and 580 bc. In fact, the...

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logographers

Overview page. Subjects: Classical Studies — History of Law.

(Gk. logographos),

as used by the contemporaries of Demosthenes (2), commonly means a speech‐writer for litigants in the courts, or else a writer of prose, as distinct from a poet....

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Mausoleum at Halicarnassus

Overview page. Subjects: Classical Studies.

One of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world, it was the tomb of the satrap Mausolus of Caria. Begun shortly after 367, when Mausolus refounded Halicarnassus, it was finished after his...

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Megalopolis

Overview page. Subjects: Architecture — Classical Studies.

[Ge]

The ‘city of all cities’ in ancient Greece; used in modern times to refer to very large conurbations.

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mētropolis

Overview page. Subjects: Classical Studies.

(‘mother‐city’). (a) The ‘mother‐city’ of a Greek colony (apoikia) usually nominated the founder, conducted rituals of divination and departure, organized a body of settlers, and formulated...

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Mithradates

Overview page. Subjects: Classical Studies.

Persian name borne most famously by six of the eight Hellenistic kings of Pontus in Asia Minor.

Mithradates VI Eupator Dionysus

(120–63 bc) was the greatest king of...

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Paphos

Overview page. Subjects: Classical Studies — Architecture.

City-kingdom of SW Cyprus. (1) Palaepaphos (mod. Kouklia) built on a bluff near the coast, site of a famous sanctuary of Aphrodite, by tradition born nearby of sea-foam. Alternative...

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Perge

Overview page. Subjects: Classical Studies — Architecture.

Near modern Aksu, a city of Pamphylia on the river Cestrus, which was supposedly founded by the ‘mixed multitude’ of Greeks who wandered across Asia Minor after the Trojan War ...

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Phasis

Overview page. Subjects: Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500) — Classical Studies.

The ancient river Phasis is the modern Rioni, with its tributary the Quirila, which traverses the lowland of Colchis and joins the Black (Euxine) Sea at the town of Phasis ...

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Romulus

Overview page. Subjects: Classical Studies.

Mythical founders of Rome. Their legend, though probably as old as the late 4th cent. bc in one form or another, cannot be very old or contain any popular element, unless it be the almost...

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ruler-cult

Overview page. Subjects: Classical Studies.

Greek

Greek ruler‐worship is the rendering, as to a god or hero, of honours to individuals widely revered because of their achievements, position, or power.

In the...

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Sicily and Magna Graecia, cults and mythology

Overview page. Subjects: Classical Studies.

Greek settlers in Sicily and Magna Graecia brought with them the principal cults of old Greece. Those of Demeter and Persephone are particularly widespread and conspicuous in the...

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