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Helsinki Conference

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Charter 77

Overview page. Subjects: Contemporary History (Post 1945) — Politics.

A document signed by 243 people, most of whom were intellectuals. Addressed to the Czechoslovak government, it protested against the violations by the state against the basic human rights...

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Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe

Overview page. Subjects: Warfare and Defence — Contemporary History (Post 1945).

(CSCE)

An organization with thirty‐four members that emerged on 1 August 1975 from the Helsinki Conference in an attempt to carry on the dialogue between Eastern and Western...

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détente

Overview page. Subjects: Politics.

Literally ‘loosening’. Détente was used to refer to periods of reduced tension in relations between the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War. It was closely associated...

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Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev

Overview page. Subjects: Contemporary History (Post 1945) — Social Sciences.

(1906–82)

Soviet statesman. He was President of the Praesidium of the Supreme Soviet (i.e. titular head of state) (1960–64). As First Secretary of the Communist Party, he replaced...

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Urho Kekkonen

Overview page. Subjects: Politics — Contemporary History (Post 1945).

(b. Kajana, Finland, 3 Sept. 1900; d. Helsinki, 31 Aug. 1986)

Finnish; Prime Minister 1950–3, 1954–6, President 1956–81 The son of a forestry foreman, Kekkonen attended school in...

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