Overview

homologous chromosomes

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allele

Overview page. Subjects: Biological Sciences.

Common shortening of the term ‘allelomorph’. One of two or more forms of a gene arising by mutation and occupying the same relative position (locus) on homologous chromosomes.

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allopolyploid

Overview page. Subjects: Biological Sciences.

A polyploid (see polyploidy) that is formed from the union of genetically distinct chromosome sets, usually from different species (e.g. bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) derived from three...

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bivalent

Overview page. Subjects: Biological Sciences — Medicine and Health.

n. (in genetics) a structure consisting of homologous chromosomes attached to each other by chiasmata during the first division of meiosis. —bivalent adj.

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chiasma

Overview page. Subjects: Biological Sciences — Medicine and Health.

(pl. chiasmata)

The point at which paired homologous chromosomes remain in contact as they begin to separate during the first prophase of meiosis, forming a cross shape. A number...

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chromosome

Overview page. Subjects: Biological Sciences.

1. in prokaryotes, the circular DNA molecule containing the entire set of genetic instructions essential for life of the cell. See genophore. 2. in the eukaryotic nucleus, one...

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chromosome substitution

Overview page. Subjects: Plant Sciences and Forestry — Genetics and Genomics.

The replacement of one or more chromosomes by others (totally or partially homologous) from another source (either a different strain of the same species or a related species that will...

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complementation

Overview page. Subjects: Medicine and Health — Science and Mathematics.

Appearance of wild-type phenotype in an organism or cell containing two different mutations combined in a hybrid diploid or a heterokaryon. See allelic complementation, complementation test.

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crossing over

Overview page. Subjects: Biological Sciences.

The exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes by breakage and reunion. This occurs during pairing of chromosomes at meiosis, and in some organisms (e.g. certain fungi, and...

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diakinesis

Overview page. Subjects: Medicine and Health.

n. the final stage in the first prophase of meiosis, in which homologous chromosomes, between which crossing over has occurred, are ready to separate.

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diplotene

Overview page. Subjects: Medicine and Health.

n. the fourth stage in the first prophase of meiosis, in which crossing over occurs between the paired chromatids of homologous chromosomes, which then begin to separate.

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