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Marja al-Taqlid

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al- Wakalat al-Khassah

Overview page. Subjects: Islam.

In Twelver Shiism, the designation of four successive persons to act as deputies of the Hidden Imam. When the twelfth imam went into occultation, a lesser occultation period followed in...

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ʿAlī Khameneʿi

Overview page. Subjects: Islam — Contemporary History (Post 1945).

ʿAlī Khameneʿi was born in 1939in Mashhad, Iran. His father, Sayyid Javad, was himself a low ranking cleric. The family is ethnically Azari, from Khamenāh. Khameneʿi attended local...

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Ali Shariati

Overview page. Subjects: Islam.

(d. 1977)

Iranian Shii thinker and political activist. Influenced by Marxian thought, he argued that scripture required adaptation to changing historical circumstances and that...

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Al-Khoei Benevolent Foundation

Overview page. Subjects: Islam.

Established in the late 1980s in the name of Ayatollah Abol-Qassem al-Khoi (d. 1992), marja al-taqlid (authority to be followed) for the majority of Shii Muslims worldwide and...

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Atabat

Overview page. Subjects: Islam.

Thresholds. The Shii shrine cities of Iraq—Najaf, Karbala, Kazimayn, and Samarra (location of the tombs of the six imams)—are important centers of devotion, pilgrimage, scholarship, and...

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Ayatollah

Overview page. Subjects: Islam.

Sign of God. Honorific title in Twelver Shii Islam. Popularly assigned to outstanding legal scholars. General use of the title appeared in the late Qajar period in Iran. It is not used...

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Ḥosayn Borujerdi

Overview page. Subjects: Islam.

Ḥosayn Ṭabāṭabāʿī Borujerdi (also rendered Ḥusayn Ṭabāṭabāʿī Burūjirdī) (1875–1961),was a Shīʿī jurisprudent and seminary director who was the sole marjaʿ al-taqlīd (source of emulation)...

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Ithna Asharis

Overview page. Subjects: Islam.

Also known as Twelvers, since they recognize twelve imams, and Imamis, due to their belief in the necessity of an imam for establishment of an ideal Muslim community. Largest subdivision...

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law

Overview page. Subjects: History.

N.

1 The enforceable body of rules that govern any society. See also common law; natural law.

2 One of the rules making up the body of law, such...

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Muhammad Baqir al- Hakim

Overview page. Subjects: Islam.

(b. 1939) Iraqi political activist and Shii scholar.

Son of the Grand Ayatollah Muhsen al-Hakim (d. 1970) and close associate of Ayatollah Mohammed Baqir al-Sadr (d. 1980). Since...

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